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PHP : Function Reference : Filesystem Functions

Filesystem Functions



No external libraries are needed to build this extension, but if you want PHP to support LFS (large files) on Linux, then you need to have a recent glibc and you need compile PHP with the following compiler flags: -D_LARGEFILE_SOURCE -D_FILE_OFFSET_BITS=64.


There is no installation needed to use these functions; they are part of the PHP core.

Runtime Configuration

The behaviour of these functions is affected by settings in php.ini.

Table 90. Filesystem and Streams Configuration Options

Name Default Changeable Changelog
allow_url_fopen "1" PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_ALL in PHP <= 4.3.4. PHP_INI_SYSTEM in PHP < 6. Available since PHP 4.0.4.
allow_url_include "0" PHP_INI_ALL PHP_INI_SYSTEM in PHP 5. Available since PHP 5.2.0.
user_agent NULL PHP_INI_ALL Available since PHP 4.3.0.
default_socket_timeout "60" PHP_INI_ALL Available since PHP 4.3.0.
from "" PHP_INI_ALL  
auto_detect_line_endings "0" PHP_INI_ALL Available since PHP 4.3.0.

Here's a short explanation of the configuration directives.

allow_url_fopen boolean

This option enables the URL-aware fopen wrappers that enable accessing URL object like files. Default wrappers are provided for the access of remote files using the ftp or http protocol, some extensions like zlib may register additional wrappers.


This setting can only be set in php.ini due to security reasons.


This option was introduced immediately after the release of version 4.0.3. For versions up to and including 4.0.3 you can only disable this feature at compile time by using the configuration switch --disable-url-fopen-wrapper.


On Windows versions prior to PHP 4.3.0, the following functions do not support remote file accessing: include(), include_once(), require(), require_once() and the imagecreatefromXXX functions in the Image extension.

allow_url_include boolean

This option allows the use of URL-aware fopen wrappers with the following functions: include(), include_once(), require(), require_once().


This setting requires allow_url_fopen to be on.

user_agent string

Define the user agent for PHP to send.

default_socket_timeout integer

Default timeout (in seconds) for socket based streams.


This configuration option was introduced in PHP 4.3.0

from string

Define the anonymous ftp password (your email address).

auto_detect_line_endings boolean

When turned on, PHP will examine the data read by fgets() and file() to see if it is using Unix, MS-Dos or Macintosh line-ending conventions.

This enables PHP to interoperate with Macintosh systems, but defaults to Off, as there is a very small performance penalty when detecting the EOL conventions for the first line, and also because people using carriage-returns as item separators under Unix systems would experience non-backwards-compatible behaviour.


This configuration option was introduced in PHP 4.3.0

Resource Types

Predefined Constants

The constants below are defined by this extension, and will only be available when the extension has either been compiled into PHP or dynamically loaded at runtime.

GLOB_BRACE (integer)
GLOB_ONLYDIR (integer)
GLOB_MARK (integer)
GLOB_NOSORT (integer)
GLOB_NOCHECK (integer)
Since PHP 5.2.0.
Search for filename in include_path (since PHP 5).
FILE_APPEND (integer)
Append content to existing file.
Strip EOL characters (since PHP 5).
Skip empty lines (since PHP 5).
FILE_BINARY (integer)
Binary mode (since PHP 6).
FILE_TEXT (integer)
Text mode (since PHP 6).

See Also

For related functions, see also the Directory and Program Execution sections.

For a list and explanation of the various URL wrappers that can be used as remote files, see also Appendix O, List of Supported Protocols/Wrappers.

Table of Contents

basename — Returns filename component of path
chgrp — Changes file group
chmod — Changes file mode
chown — Changes file owner
clearstatcache — Clears file status cache
copy — Copies file
delete — See unlink() or unset()
dirname — Returns directory name component of path
disk_free_space — Returns available space in directory
disk_total_space — Returns the total size of a directory
diskfreespace — Alias of disk_free_space()
fclose — Closes an open file pointer
feof — Tests for end-of-file on a file pointer
fflush — Flushes the output to a file
fgetc — Gets character from file pointer
fgetcsv — Gets line from file pointer and parse for CSV fields
fgets — Gets line from file pointer
fgetss — Gets line from file pointer and strip HTML tags
file_exists — Checks whether a file or directory exists
file_get_contents — Reads entire file into a string
file_put_contents — Write a string to a file
file — Reads entire file into an array
fileatime — Gets last access time of file
filectime — Gets inode change time of file
filegroup — Gets file group
fileinode — Gets file inode
filemtime — Gets file modification time
fileowner — Gets file owner
fileperms — Gets file permissions
filesize — Gets file size
filetype — Gets file type
flock — Portable advisory file locking
fnmatch — Match filename against a pattern
fopen — Opens file or URL
fpassthru — Output all remaining data on a file pointer
fputcsv — Format line as CSV and write to file pointer
fputs — Alias of fwrite()
fread — Binary-safe file read
fscanf — Parses input from a file according to a format
fseek — Seeks on a file pointer
fstat — Gets information about a file using an open file pointer
ftell — Tells file pointer read/write position
ftruncate — Truncates a file to a given length
fwrite — Binary-safe file write
glob — Find pathnames matching a pattern
is_dir — Tells whether the filename is a directory
is_executable — Tells whether the filename is executable
is_file — Tells whether the filename is a regular file
is_link — Tells whether the filename is a symbolic link
is_readable — Tells whether the filename is readable
is_uploaded_file — Tells whether the file was uploaded via HTTP POST
is_writable — Tells whether the filename is writable
is_writeable — Alias of is_writable()
lchgrp — Changes group ownership of symlink
lchown — Changes user ownership of symlink
link — Create a hard link
linkinfo — Gets information about a link
lstat — Gives information about a file or symbolic link
mkdir — Makes directory
move_uploaded_file — Moves an uploaded file to a new location
parse_ini_file — Parse a configuration file
pathinfo — Returns information about a file path
pclose — Closes process file pointer
popen — Opens process file pointer
readfile — Outputs a file
readlink — Returns the target of a symbolic link
realpath — Returns canonicalized absolute pathname
rename — Renames a file or directory
rewind — Rewind the position of a file pointer
rmdir — Removes directory
set_file_buffer — Alias of stream_set_write_buffer()
stat — Gives information about a file
symlink — Creates a symbolic link
tempnam — Create file with unique file name
tmpfile — Creates a temporary file
touch — Sets access and modification time of file
umask — Changes the current umask
unlink — Deletes a file

Code Examples / Notes » ref.filesystem


This is a function I use to determine if a file contains Binary information. I use this for my search engine so that it doesn't try to index files like .zip or .mp3 or any other file that doesn't contain readable information. It makes use of the Character Type Extension if it's loaded, if it's not then it uses Regular Expressions.
function is_binary($link)
    $tmpStr  = '';
    @$fp     = fopen($link, 'rb');
    @$tmpStr = fread($fp, 256);
    if($tmpStr != '')
         $tmpStr = str_replace(chr(10), '', $tmpStr);
         $tmpStr = str_replace(chr(13), '', $tmpStr);
         $tmpInt = 0;
          for($i =0; $i < strlen($tmpStr); $i++)
               if( extension_loaded('ctype') )
                   if( !ctype_print($tmpStr[$i]) )
                  if( !eregi("[[:print:]]+", $tmpStr[$i]) )
          if($tmpInt > 5)

gregor mosheh

This function searches a directory and returns an array of all files whose filename matches the specified regular expression. It's similar in concept to the Unix find program.
function findfile($location='',$fileregex='') {
   if (!$location or !is_dir($location) or !$fileregex) {
      return false;

   $matchedfiles = array();

   $all = opendir($location);
   while ($file = readdir($all)) {
      if (is_dir($location.'/'.$file) and $file <> ".." and $file <> ".") {
         $subdir_matches = findfile($location.'/'.$file,$fileregex);
         $matchedfiles = array_merge($matchedfiles,$subdir_matches);
      elseif (!is_dir($location.'/'.$file)) {
         if (preg_match($fileregex,$file)) {
   return $matchedfiles;
$htmlfiles = findfile('/some/dir','/\.(htm|html)$/');

storm reaver

The way to write files on server where it is not possible (e.g.
function killfile($ftp, $login, $pass, $filename){
 $conn_id = ftp_connect($ftp);
 $login_result = ftp_login($conn_id, $login, $pass);
 if ((!$conn_id) || (!$login_result)) { return false; } else {
   $del = ftp_delete($conn_id, $filename);
   if (!del) { return false; } else {return true;}
killfile("", "login", "password", "/path/file.extension");
  // Erasing file on server
$fs = fopen("", "w");
  // Opening file for writing
  // You can't open file 4 writing without 'killfile' function because there must be no such file on server for fopen write mode via FTP/
// Here we write what we need



The following will work on UNIX (from peeweeks code submitted for "Windows")---
function ls ($curpath) {
  $dir = dir($curpath);
  echo "<blockquote>";
  while ($file = $dir->read()) {
      if($file != "." && $file != "..") {
          if (is_dir($curpath.$file)) {
            } else {
  echo "</blockquote>";
$startpath = "/home/mypath/";


The following underlisted function called "fcountext" is a function I wrote, for counting the number of file extensions within a given directory. Hope you find it satisfactory as there is no alternative solution via PHP's core filesystem's functions for counting the number of file extensions within a given directory.
* Author: ORUNTA C. N.
* Email:
* Name: fcountext()
* Function: To count the number of file extensions within a given directory.
* Argument(s): $dir, i.e. directory path - for e.g. 'htdocs/yahoo/'
* Return-type: Integer

function fcountext($dir)
//Authenticate - if directory?
if(is_dir($dir)) {

//Open and establish directory handle/pointer
$dp = opendir($dir);

//Create extensible array
$afile = array();

//Set initializer array;
$i = 0;

//Read contents of directory into array $afile, thus:
while($content = readdir($dp)) {

//Concatenate filepath
$filepath = $dir.$content;

//Confirm any initial value within array...
if(!count($afile)) {

//Authenticate - if file?
if(is_file($filepath)) {

//Get extension using PHP's 'pathinfo'
$pathinfo = pathinfo($filepath);

//Store into the array
$afile[$i] = $pathinfo['extension'];

} else {

//Authenticate - if file?
if(is_file($filepath)) {

//Get extension using PHP's 'pathinfo'
$pathinfo = pathinfo($filepath);

//Count array into $len
$len = count($afile);

//Compare $pathinfo['extension'] with elements of array $afile
for($i=0; $i<$len; $i++) {
if($afile[$i] != $pathinfo['extension']) $stat = 'T';
else {
$stat = 'F';

//If Status is true, then store into array
if($stat == 'T') {
$afile[$len] = $pathinfo['extension'];

//Count total no. of different extensions.
$extnum = count($afile);

//Return no. of ext.
return $extnum;

//Close directory

} else {

//Return no Value
return 'Invalid Directory';
The above function can be incorporated as you deem fit into a class situation to be accessed publicly.


The following souce is the combination of 3 different function ,does the listing of the whole files in directories or sub-directories of a base directory(given). And find out the maximum file size of given application files. for example it will tell the maximum file size of ppt file that is placed in the directory.
function showExtension($file){
  $fileInfo = pathinfo($file);
} else {
return $extension;
function fsize($size) {
      $a = array("B", "KB", "MB", "GB", "TB", "PB");
      $pos = 0;
      while ($size >= 1024) {
             $size /= 1024;
     return round($size,2)." ".$a[$pos];

function ls ($curpath) {
$dir = dir($curpath);
$file_namearr = array("ETC","PPT","XLS","DOC","PDF");

echo "<blockquote>";
$file_sizearr = array(1,1,1,1,1);
while ($file = $dir->read()) {
if($file != "." && $file != "..") {
if (is_dir($curpath.$file)) {
else  {
$filext= strtoupper(showExtension($curpath.$file));
$curr_key = 0;
$curr_key = array_search($filext,$file_namearr);
//echo "
$curr_file_size = $file_sizearr[$curr_key];
$file_sizearr[$curr_key]= intval(filesize($curpath.$file));

$file : ".fsize($curpath.$file);

}//while ends
echo "</blockquote>";

$startpath = "/home6/docmng/";



Sorry, important typo in previous post:
$dodgychars = "[^0-9a-zA-z()_-]";
should be (notice captial Z)
$dodgychars = "[^0-9a-zA-Z()_-]";

mitra contributed this in response to a question on setting these variables ...
This option *IS* settable within your PHP scripts.
 ini_set('auto_detect_line_endings', true);
 $contents = file('unknowntype.txt');
 ini_set('auto_detect_line_endings', false);
 $content2 = file('unixfile.txt');
Note, with PHP 4.3 anytime Mac files are read using fgets or file you'll need to auto_detect_line_endings since \n is otherwise assumed.  However, with PHP 5.0, stream_get_line() will allow you to specify what line ending character to read up to.
\\ Read a line from a MAC file
stream_get_line($fp, 4096, "\r");
\\ Read a line from a UNIX file
stream_get_line($fp, 4096, "\n");
\\ Read a line from a DOS file
stream_get_line($fp, 4096, "\r\n");
\\ Read a line up to any filesystem line ending
ini_set('auto_detect_line_endings', true); fgets($fp);
\\ You can also make up your own line ending characters:
\\ Read up to the first instance of ":"
stream_get_line($fp, 4096, ":");


PHP5 Object File
I couldn't find a File Object in PHP5, so I decided to create one myself.
When a function that needs a path requires the file it will output a temp file and return the path to it, so that ie. parse_ini_file will work with the file object using:
It is avaible for download at:
Hans Duedal

16-aug-2006 07:11

Note that file functions automatically handle HTTP response codes, and in case of "Location" header you will get content of new reloacated page:
$url = ""; // here we have redirect to /catalog/1/
$fp = fopen($fp);
echo fread($fp, 1024); // we get content of /catalog/1/


Little function to sanitize a user supplied file name, and optionally force a file extension:
function sanitize_filename($filename, $forceextension="")
 1. Remove leading and trailing dots
 2. Remove dodgy characters from filename, including spaces and dots except last.
 3. Force extension if specified
 $defaultfilename = "none";
 $dodgychars = "[^0-9a-zA-z()_-]"; // allow only alphanumeric, underscore, parentheses and hyphen
 $filename = preg_replace("/^[.]*/","",$filename); // lose any leading dots
 $filename = preg_replace("/[.]*$/","",$filename); // lose any trailing dots
 $filename = $filename?$filename:$defaultfilename; // if filename is blank, provide default
 $lastdotpos=strrpos($filename, "."); // save last dot position
 $filename = preg_replace("/$dodgychars/","_",$filename); // replace dodgy characters
 $afterdot = "";
 if ($lastdotpos !== false) { // Split into name and extension, if any.
   $beforedot = substr($filename, 0, $lastdotpos);
   if ($lastdotpos < (strlen($filename) - 1))
     $afterdot = substr($filename, $lastdotpos + 1);
 else // no extension
   $beforedot = $filename;
 if ($forceextension)
   $filename = $beforedot . "." . $forceextension;
 elseif ($afterdot)
   $filename = $beforedot . "." . $afterdot;
   $filename = $beforedot;
 return $filename;
echo sanitize_filename("..file<>@**()name.ddd.badextension", "extension")."\n";
echo sanitize_filename("..file<>@**()name.extension.ddd")."\n";
echo sanitize_filename("...", "extension")."\n";
echo sanitize_filename("...")."\n";
echo sanitize_filename("filename")."\n";
echo sanitize_filename("filename", "extension")."\n";
echo sanitize_filename("", "extension")."\n";
echo sanitize_filename("", "")."\n";


In the code samples of the user-contributed notes, you'll find functions that sometimes need a slash at the end of a folder path and sometimes don't.
Here's a little function to append a slash at the end of a path if there isn't one already.
function append_slash_if_none($string)
   if (ereg ("/$", $string))
       return $string;
       return ereg_replace("$", "/", $string);
(Replace with a backslash if you're on Windows...)

gregor mosheh

I needed a function to find disk usage for a directory and its subs, so here it is. It's kinda like the Unix du program, except it returns the usage in bytes, not blocks.
function du($location) {
  if (!$location or !is_dir($location)) {
     return 0;
  $total = 0;
  $all = opendir($location);
  while ($file = readdir($all)) {
     if (is_dir($location.'/'.$file) and $file <> ".." and $file <> ".") {
        $total += du($location.'/'.$file);
     elseif (!is_dir($location.'/'.$file)) {
        $stats = stat($location.'/'.$file);
        $total += $stats['size'];
  return $total;
print du('/some/directory');


I made this function to search and/or display files by extension or for a string occurance in the filename. Any comments or enhancements are welcome offcourse. I'll update this function soon.
usage: list_files([string], [string], [int 1 | 0], [int 1 | 0]);
search for extension: list_files([string], [string], [0], [int 1 | 0]);
returns array: $myArray = list_files([string], [string], [0], [0]);
echo result: list_files([string], [string], [0], [1]);
search for string occurance: list_files([string], [string], [1], [int 1 | 0]);
returns array: $myArray = list_files([string], [string], [1], [0]);
echo result: list_files([string], [string], [1], [1]);
function list_files($directory, $stringSearch, $searchHandler, $outputHandler) {
$errorHandler = false;
$result = array();
if (! $directoryHandler = @opendir ($directory)) {
 echo ("<pre>\nerror: directory \"$directory\" doesn't exist!\n</pre>\n");
return $errorHandler = true;
if ($searchHandler === 0) {
 while (false !== ($fileName = @readdir ($directoryHandler))) {
  if(@substr ($fileName, - @strlen ($stringSearch)) === $stringSearch) {
   @array_push ($result, $fileName);
if ($searchHandler === 1) {
 while(false !== ($fileName = @readdir ($directoryHandler))) {
  if(@substr_count ($fileName, $stringSearch) > 0) {
   @array_push ($result, $fileName);
if (($errorHandler === true) &&  (@count ($result) === 0)) {
 echo ("<pre>\nerror: no filetype \"$fileExtension\" found!\n</pre>\n");
else {
 sort ($result);
 if ($outputHandler === 0) {
  return $result;
 if ($outputHandler === 1) {
  echo ("<pre>\n");
  print_r ($result);
  echo ("</pre>\n");


I just learned that, to specify file names in a portable manner, you DON'T need 'DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR' - just use '/'. This really surprised and shocked me, as until now I typed about a zillion times 'DIRECTORY_SEPARATOR' to stay platform independent - unnecessary. Don't make the same mistake.


Here's a little script I added to my set of web pages to insert a line saying when the set of web pages were last updated:
$latesttime = 0;
if ($handle = opendir('/home/shouri/public_html')) {
while (false !== ($file = readdir($handle))) {
$recenttime = filemtime($file);
if ($recenttime > $latesttime )
$latesttime = $recenttime;
echo("Last updated on " . date("F d Y", $latesttime) . " at " . date("H:i", $latesttime) . " IST");
The html output looks like:
Last updated on July 28 2007 at 20:19 IST


Here's a little function I wrote that I thought someone might find useful.  Ever notice those fancy breadcrumbed headings on Web sites such as  Ever say, "I want one, but I don't want to write the HTML in each time?"  Well, here you go.  This does that based on your directory structure.
Do note, however, that it only works if you use files and folders that are named like:
...and the variable <i>$path</i> must be similarly formatted.  A preceding forward slash (/) must be on that <i>$path</i>.  $_SERVER['PHP_SELF'], $_SERVER['DOCUMENT_ROOT'], and other $_SERVER variables always add that.
When I have some free time (sooner rather than later), I'm going to write a more in-depth script for this.  I just needed something simple for now.  You can expect a PHP 4 and PHP 5 script class dedicated to this one idea.  For now, this simple function does the trick.  Anyway, here you go:
function breadCrumbs($path)
*  What it does is split a path string into its two base objects -- a
*  file name and a directory name.
*  After that, it then splits the directory into an array of sub-
*  directories and adds them to a stack of links with keys of 'name'
*  (directory name) and 'href' (hyperlink reference path).
*  Each item in this indexed associative array is then stacked again
*  into an array of actual hyperlinks (i.e. <a href="Blah/Blah2.php">)
*  split by a tree notification ( > ) of sorts.
*  Finally, the entire string, which may look like:
*  <a href="#">Services</a> > <a href="#">Web</a>
*  has the current file being viewed added to it.  That finished string
*  is then returned to the calling script/function for display to the
*  browser.
*  The returned HTML may look like:
*  <a href="#">Services</a> > <a href="#">Web</a> > Home

// set the index file and name for each directory
$dirIndex = 'Home.php';
$dirIndexName = 'Home';

// split $path into basename and dirname
$file = basename($path, '.php');
$dir  = dirname($path);

// change all backslashes to forward slashes
$dir  = str_replace('\\', '/', $dir);

// remove preceding forward slash (/)
$dir  = substr($dir, 1, strlen($dir));

// ** ADDED **
// add a trailing '/ ' to add a blank folder name - will be removed
// NOTE: This is to ensure that an array IS created
$dir .= '/ ';

// split dirname into an array
$dirs = preg_split('@\/@', $dir);

// get the last array index from $dirs
$lastIndex = count($dirs) - 1;

// remove last $dirs if empty
if ($dirs[$lastIndex] == '' || is_null($dirs[$lastIndex])) {

// remove empty dir
if ($dirs[$lastIndex] == ' ') {

// get an accurate directory count
$dirCount = count($dirs);

// create $link and $links variables
$link  = '/';
$links = array();

// stack each directory into a link and dirname
for ($i = 0; $i < count($dirs); $i++) {
// change $dirs[$i] into capitalized word(s) and add spaces (for
// grammatical correctness)
$link .= ucwords(preg_replace('@(-|_)@', ' ', $dirs[$i])) . '/';

$links[$i]['href'] = $link . $dirIndex;
$links[$i]['name'] = ucwords($dirs[$i]);

// instanciate $breadcrumbs array
$breadcrumbs = array();

// stack $links into HTML-equivalent links
for ($i = 0; $i < count($links); $i++) {
$breadcrumbs[$i] = '<a href="' . $links[$i]['href'] . '">' . $links[$i]['name'] . '</a>';

// see if links are needed or if a parent document
if ($dirs[0] == '' || empty($dirs[0])) {
// it is not so use just the file name
$breadcrumb = $file;
} else {
// it is so compile the links into a breadcrumb string
$breadcrumb  = '<a href="/' . $dirIndex . '">' . $dirIndexName . '</a> &#8212; ' . join($breadcrumbs, ' > ');
$breadcrumb .= ' > ' . $file;

// return compiled breadcrumb string
return $breadcrumb;


Here's a function that checks if a string filename, absolute or relative, is valid or not.
function validFilename($file)
   if( checkCurrentOS( 'Win' )) {
       // if has invalid filename, return false
       if ( preg_match( '/PRN|CON|AUX|CLOCK\$|NUL|COM\d|LPT\d/i', $file)) {
           return false;
       $parts = explode( "\\", $file);
       // if a drive letter, approve (don't check it later)
       if (preg_match( '/[A-Za-z]:/', $parts[0] )) {
           $parts[0] = null;
       // checks for invalid printable charactors or control charactors
       foreach ($parts as $part) {
           if( preg_match( '|[\^\|\?\*<\":>/\a\b\e\f\n\r\t]|', $part )) {
               return false;
       return true;            
   } else { // unix always passes
       return true;

function checkCurrentOS($operatingSystem)
   $currentOS = substr( php_uname(), 0, 7 ) == "Windows" ? "Win" : "_Nix";
   if ( strcmp( $operatingSystem, $currentOS ) == 0 ) {
       return true;
   } else {
       return false;


Here is a useful function that checks for the existance of a file in PHP's include_path:
   // Searches PHP's include_path variable for the existance of a file
   // Returns the filename if it's found, otherwise FALSE.
   // Only works on a *nix-based filesystem
   // Check like: if (($file = file_exists_path('PEAR.php')) !== FALSE)
   function file_exists_path($file) {
       // Absolute path specified
       if (substr($path,0,1)=='/')
           return (file_exists($file))?realpath($file):FALSE;
       $paths = explode(':',ini_get('include_path'));
       foreach ($paths as $path) {
           if (substr($path,-1)!='/') $path = "$path/";
           if (file_exists("$path$file"))
               return realpath("$path$file");
       return FALSE;


Here is a useful function if you're having trouble writing raw bytes into a file.
It receives an integer and returns an array containing the ASCII values of the bytes on each index of the array.
function int2bytes($number){
 $byte = $number;
   $dec_tmp = $byte;
   $byte = bcdiv($byte,256,0);
   $resto = $dec_tmp - (256 * $byte);
   $return[] = $resto;
 } while($byte >= 256);
 if($byte) $return[] = $byte;
 return array_reverse($return);
$arr = int2bytes(75832);
$arr will contain the following values:
   [0] => 1
   [1] => 40
   [2] => 56
Now, to write this data to the file, just use a fputs() with chr(), just like this:
-- Regis

ciprian danea, cipriandanea

Here is a little script that will enumerate a directory (given as a string) recursively.
The main working function is get_dir($path,$max_depth='')
Optional aguments:
$max_depth : obvious it'll limit the recursive depth.
Not so optional:
$l=0 : the first call must omit this, or explicitly set it to 0, since it represents the starting depth
$total='': the current total filesize; it should also be left alone, although it autosets itself to 0 on the first call;
In order to do something with the files other than just echoing them, simply replace the echo functions with your own;
Thanks to:
dave at birko dot cjb dot net (for the nice filesize function)
vbwebprofi at gmx dot de  (for the fileperms function)
function get_dir($path,$max_depth='',$l=0,$total=''){
echo "\nEnumerating directory $path :\n\n";
if($max_depth==='' || ($max_depth>$l && is_int($max_depth))) $test_depth=true;
else $test_depth=false;
$size="[ ".fsize($s)." ]";
else $f.="/";
$size=" ".$size;
echo "\n".get_permissions(fileperms($file)).$size.$pre."\t".$f;
if(is_dir($file) && $test_depth)
echo "\n\nTotal size: ".fsize($total);
return $total;
function get_permissions($fperms) {
  if($fperms & 0x1000)     // FIFO pipe
    $out = 'p';
  elseif($fperms & 0x2000) // Character outecial
    $out = 'c';
  elseif($fperms & 0x3000) // Socket [ original value 0xD000, wrong for linux, but this is also registering as a directory... ant ideas?]
    $out = 's';
  elseif($fperms & 0x4000) // Directory
    $out = 'd';
  elseif($fperms & 0x6000) // Block outecial
    $out = 'b';
  elseif($fperms & 0x8000) // Regular
    $out = '-';
  elseif($fperms & 0xA000) // Symbolic Link
    $out = 'l';
  else                         // UNKNOWN
    $out = 'u';
  // owner
  $out .= (($fperms & 0x0100) ? 'r' : '-') .
         (($fperms & 0x0080) ? 'w' : '-') .
         (($fperms & 0x0040) ? (($fperms & 0x0800) ? 's' : 'x' ) :
                                  (($fperms & 0x0800) ? 'S' : '-'));
  // group
  $out .= (($fperms & 0x0020) ? 'r' : '-') .
         (($fperms & 0x0010) ? 'w' : '-') .
         (($fperms & 0x0008) ? (($fperms & 0x0400) ? 's' : 'x' ) :
                                  (($fperms & 0x0400) ? 'S' : '-'));
  // world
  $out .= (($fperms & 0x0004) ? 'r' : '-') .
          (($fperms & 0x0002) ? 'w' : '-') .
          (($fperms & 0x0001) ? (($fperms & 0x0200) ? 't' : 'x' ) :
                                 (($fperms & 0x0200) ? 'T' : '-'));
  return $out;
function fsize($size) {
      $a = array("B", "KB", "MB", "GB", "TB", "PB");
      $pos = 0;
      while ($size >= 1024) {
              $size /= 1024;
      return round($size,2)." ".$a[$pos];
//usage example
get_dir("/tmp/");    // full depth
get_dir("/tmp/",4); //maximum depth set to 4


here is a function that recurses all directories in a Windows Tree then displays for each directory its contents.
function ls ($curpath) {
$dir = dir($curpath);
echo "<blockquote>";
while ($file = $dir->read()) {
if($file != "." && $file != "..") {
if (is_dir($curpath.$file)) {
} else {
echo "</blockquote>";
$startpath = "D:\\something\\";

Here is a function I wrote to get the relative path between 2 files or directory.
We suppose that paths are wrotten in Unix format (/ instead of windows \\)
* Return the relative path between two paths / Retourne le chemin relatif entre 2 chemins
* If $path2 is empty, get the current directory (getcwd).
* @return string
function relativePath($path1, $path2='')
if ($path2 == '') {
$path2 = $path1;
$path1 = getcwd();
//Remove starting, ending, and double / in paths
$path1 = trim($path1,'/');
$path2 = trim($path2,'/');
while (substr_count($path1, '//')) $path1 = str_replace('//', '/', $path1);
while (substr_count($path2, '//')) $path2 = str_replace('//', '/', $path2);
//create arrays
$arr1 = explode('/', $path1);
if ($arr1 == array('')) $arr1 = array();
$arr2 = explode('/', $path2);
if ($arr2 == array('')) $arr2 = array();
$size1 = count($arr1);
$size2 = count($arr2);
//now the hard part :-p
for($i=0; $i<min($size1,$size2); $i++)
if ($arr1[$i] == $arr2[$i]) continue;
else $path = '../'.$path.$arr2[$i].'/';
if ($size1 > $size2)
for ($i = $size2; $i < $size1; $i++)
$path = '../'.$path;
else if ($size2 > $size1)
for ($i = $size1; $i < $size2; $i++)
$path .= $arr2[$i].'/';
return $path;
Enjoy ! :-)


Directed at: fankounter at libero dot it
Erm, I think you missed glob() which does what you're doing, only much more efficiently.


Correction to previous posts's code (had $fp instead of $url on second line)
$url = ""; // here we have redirect to /catalog/1/
$fp = fopen($url);
echo fread($fp, 1024); // we get content of /catalog/1/

28-may-2005 08:17

Again, please note, if you ask a question, report a bug, or request a feature, your note will be deleted.) Again, please note, if you ask a question, report a bug, or request a feature, your note will be deleted.) Again, please note, if you ask a question, report a bug, or request a feature, your note will be deleted.) Again, please note, if you ask a question, report a bug, or request a feature, your note will be deleted.) Again, please note, if you ask a question, report a bug, or request a feature, your note will be deleted.) Again, please note, if you ask a question, report a bug, or request a feature, your note will be deleted.) Again, please note, if you ask a question, report a bug, or request a feature, your note will be deleted.) Again, please note, if you ask a question, report a bug, or request a feature, your note will be deleted.)


After searching all over the place to find a function to do what I wanted, I wrote the following:
 **  Returns an array of valid drives on the system (a:, b:, etc.)
 function getSystemDrives () {
   // Initialize
   $aResult = Array ();
   // Loop from A-Z and try opening the root dir
   for ($letter = 'A'; $letter <= 'Z'; $letter ++) {
     if (is_dir ($letter . ":"))
       $aResult [] = $letter . ":";
   // Return results
   return ($aResult);
It simply returns an array of valid drives as seen from the server (A:, B:, etc.).  This obviously is targeted to Win32 installations only.


// ls(dir,pattern) return file list in "dir" folder matching "pattern"
// ls("path","module.php?") search into "path" folder for module.php3, module.php4, ...
// ls("images/","*.jpg") search into "images" folder for JPG images
function ls($__dir="./",$__pattern="*.*")
$__regexp=preg_replace("/[\\x5C][\x3F]/",".", $__regexp);
return $__ls;


// faster "fcountext" function
function extCount ($dir) {
 if (is_dir ($dir)) {
   $g = glob ($dir . '/*.*');
   foreach ($g as $v) {
     $this = pathinfo($v);
     $e[] = $this['extension'];
   // return extension count
   return count(array_unique($e));
   // alternately, you could return an array of the extensions found -
   return array_values(array_unique($e));
 // otherwise
 return false;

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