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PHP : Function Reference : Filesystem Functions : parse_ini_file

parse_ini_file

Parse a configuration file (PHP 4, PHP 5)
array parse_ini_file ( string filename [, bool process_sections] )

parse_ini_file() loads in the ini file specified in filename, and returns the settings in it in an associative array.

The structure of the ini file is the same as the php.ini's.

Parameters

filename

The filename of the ini file being parsed.

process_sections

By setting the last process_sections parameter to TRUE, you get a multidimensional array, with the section names and settings included. The default for process_sections is FALSE

Return Values

The settings are returned as an associative array.

ChangeLog

Version Description
5.2.4 Keys and section names consisting of numbers are now evaluated as PHP integers thus numbers starting by 0 are evaluated as octals and numbers starting by 0x are evaluated as hexadecimals.
5.0.0 Values enclosed in double quotes can contain new lines.
4.2.1 This function is now affected by safe mode and open_basedir.

Examples

Example†662.†Contents of sample.ini

; This is a sample configuration file
; Comments start with ';', as in php.ini

[first_section]
one = 1
five = 5
animal = BIRD

[second_section]
path = "/usr/local/bin"
URL = "http://www.example.com/~username"


Example†663.†parse_ini_file() example

Constants may also be parsed in the ini file so if you define a constant as an ini value before running parse_ini_file(), it will be integrated into the results. Only ini values are evaluated. For example:

<?php

define
('BIRD', 'Dodo bird');

// Parse without sections
$ini_array = parse_ini_file("sample.ini");
print_r($ini_array);

// Parse with sections
$ini_array = parse_ini_file("sample.ini", true);
print_r($ini_array);

?>

The above example will output something similar to:

Array
(
† †[one] => 1
† †[five] => 5
† †[animal] => Dodo bird
† †[path] => /usr/local/bin
† †[URL] => http://www.example.com/~username
)
Array
(
† †[first_section] => Array
† † † †(
† † † † † †[one] => 1
† † † † † †[five] => 5
† † † † † †[animal] = Dodo bird
† † † †)

† †[second_section] => Array
† † † †(
† † † † † †[path] => /usr/local/bin
† † † † † †[URL] => http://www.example.com/~username
† † † †)

)


Notes

Note:

This function has nothing to do with the php.ini file. It is already processed, the time you run your script. This function can be used to read in your own application's configuration files.

Note:

If a value in the ini file contains any non-alphanumeric characters it needs to be enclosed in double-quotes (").

Note:

There are reserved words which must not be used as keys for ini files. These include: null, yes, no, true, and false. Values null, no and false results in "", yes and true results in "1". Characters {}|&~![()" must not be used anywhere in the key and have a special meaning in the value.

Code Examples / Notes » parse_ini_file

liu student

[Editor's note: The fwrite()-line should look like: "if (fwrite($handle, $content) === false) {" to avoid returning false when the array is empty --victor@php.net]
function writeIni($assoc_arr, $path){
$content = "";

foreach ( $assoc_arr as $key=>$elem ){
$content .= "[".$key."]\n";
foreach ( $elem as $key2=>$elem2){
$content .= $key2." = \"".$elem2."\"\n";
}
}

if (!$handle = fopen($path, 'w')) {
  return false;
}
  if (!fwrite($handle, $content)) {
  return false;
  }  
fclose($handle);
return true;
}


dewi

[A feature request for a third parameter, to turn off the following insecure behaviour has been submitted: http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=34949 - I'm just documenting it here so that people are aware that they need to take the insecurity of the current behaviour into consideration when programming.]
Be warned that, in its current (2-argument) form, this function should be avoided when processing user-provided ini files, as data leakage may occur if the user provides an ini file with unquoted string values.
To avoid this problem, it's vital that if your program stores any sensitive data in constants, that you either pre-scan the ini file for unquoted strings, or that you do not use this function.
A suitable pre-parse parser might be as follows.
This assumes that there are no non-word (a-zA-Z0-9_) characters in your keys, and minimises whitespace.
It tries to convert intelligently, like so:
  value1 = value  ; this is a comment
  value2 = value; with semicolon in
to
  value1 = "value"  ; this is a comment
  value2 = "value; with semicolon in"
<?php
$file = file_get_contents('user_provided.ini');
$file2 = preg_replace('/^
(\s*\w+\s*=\s*)        # Part \1 - the key and initial whitespace.
(                      # Part \2 - the value to be quoted
 (?:(?!\s;)[^"\r\n])  # Anything but \r, ", \s;, \n
        *?            # As little as possible of that, minimise whitespace.
)
(                      # Part \3 - everything after the value
 \s*                  # Optional whitespace.
 (?:\s;.*)?           # Optional comment preceded by a space
)
$/mx', '\1"\2"\3', $file);
file_put_contents('user_provided.ini2', $file2);
?>


goulven.ch

Warning: parse_ini_files cannot cope with values containing the equal sign (=).
The following function supports sections, comments, arrays, and key-value pairs outside of any section.
Beware that similar keys will overwrite one another (unless in different sections).
<?php
function parse_ini ( $filepath ) {
$ini = file( $filepath );
if ( count( $ini ) == 0 ) { return array(); }
$sections = array();
$values = array();
$globals = array();
$i = 0;
foreach( $ini as $line ){
$line = trim( $line );
// Comments
if ( $line == '' || $line{0} == ';' ) { continue; }
// Sections
if ( $line{0} == '[' ) {
$sections[] = substr( $line, 1, -1 );
$i++;
continue;
}
// Key-value pair
list( $key, $value ) = explode( '=', $line, 2 );
$key = trim( $key );
$value = trim( $value );
if ( $i == 0 ) {
// Array values
if ( substr( $line, -1, 2 ) == '[]' ) {
$globals[ $key ][] = $value;
} else {
$globals[ $key ] = $value;
}
} else {
// Array values
if ( substr( $line, -1, 2 ) == '[]' ) {
$values[ $i - 1 ][ $key ][] = $value;
} else {
$values[ $i - 1 ][ $key ] = $value;
}
}
}
for( $j=0; $j<$i; $j++ ) {
$result[ $sections[ $j ] ] = $values[ $j ];
}
return $result + $globals;
}
?>
Example usage:
<?php
$stores = parse_ini('stores.ini');
print_r( $stores );
?>
An example ini file:
<?php
/*
;Commented line start with ';'
global_value1 = a string value
global_value1 = another string value
; empty lines are discarded
[Section1]
key = value
; whitespace around keys and values is discarded too
otherkey=other value
otherkey=yet another value
; this key-value pair will overwrite the former.
*/
?>


19-apr-2006 08:45

upgrade of "mauder[remove] at [remove]gmail[remove] dot com" idea of hiding ini content from being seen.
file.ini.php
first line:
;<?/*
last line:
;*/?>
will result ";" in browser, not "pharse error: (...)".


hoc

to phpcoder at cyberpimp dot pimpdomain dot com:
thx for the read/write ini functions, they work like a charm ...
except for that one small (easy to find) substr-bug in the readINIfile-function:
counting with substr starts from 0, not 1, so
<?php
if (substr($value, 1, 1) == '"' && ...
?>
should be ...
<?php
if (substr($value, 0, 1) == '"' && ...
?>


justin hall

This is a simple (but slightly hackish) way of avoiding the character limitations (in values):
<?php
define('QUOTE', '"');
$test = parse_ini_file('test.ini');
echo "<pre>";
print_r($test);
?>
contents of test.ini:
park yesterday = "I (walked) | {to} " QUOTE"the"QUOTE " park yesterday & saw ~three~ dogs!"
output:
<?php
Array
(
   [park yesterday] => I (walked) | {to} "the" park yesterday & saw ~three~ dogs!
)
?>


23-oct-2006 10:16

this function won't parse a remote INI file, even with allow_url_fopen turned on.

fantasysportswire

The ahull version of the parse_ini_file_quotes_safe can not handle unicode... the original version from Julio L Garbayo can.

wickedfather

Slight modification of write_ini_file that will keep values global in an array if they appear after an array
<?php function write_ini_file($path, $assoc_array)
{
$content = '';
$sections = '';
foreach ($assoc_array as $key => $item)
{
if (is_array($item))
{
$sections .= "\n[{$key}]\n";
foreach ($item as $key2 => $item2)
{
if (is_numeric($item2) || is_bool($item2))
$sections .= "{$key2} = {$item2}\n";
else
$sections .= "{$key2} = \"{$item2}\"\n";
}      
}
else
{
if(is_numeric($item) || is_bool($item))
$content .= "{$key} = {$item}\n";
else
$content .= "{$key} = \"{$item}\"\n";
}
}      
$content .= $sections;
if (!$handle = fopen($path, 'w'))
{
return false;
}

if (!fwrite($handle, $content))
{
return false;
}

fclose($handle);
return true;
} ?>


hfuecks

parse_ini_file seems to have changed it's signature between PHP 4.3.x and PHP 5.0.0 (can't find any relevant changelog / cvs entries referring to this).
In PHP 4.3.x and below return value was a boolean FALSE if the ini file could not be found. With PHP 5.0.0 the return value is an empty array if the file is not found.


yarco dot w

parse_ini_file can't deal with const which cancate a string. For example, if test.ini file is
classPath = ROOT/lib
If you:
<?php
define('ROOT', dirname(__FILE__));
$buf = parse_ini_file('test.ini');
?>
const ROOT would't be parsed.
But my version could work find.
<?php
// array parse_ini_file ( string $filename [, bool $process_sections] )
function parse_ini($filename, $process_sections = false)
{
 function replace_process(& $item, $key, $consts)
 {
   $item = str_replace(array_keys($consts), array_values($consts), $item);
 }
 $buf = get_defined_constants(true); // PHP version > 5.0
 $consts = $buf['user'];
 $ini = parse_ini_file($filename, $process_sections);
 array_walk_recursive($ini, 'replace_process', $consts);
 return $ini;
}
define('ROOT', '/test');
print_r(parse_ini(dirname(__FILE__).'/test.ini'));
?>


mark

or to prevent the file being viewed you can just use a .htaccess file and add this line
<files *.ini>
order deny,allow
deny from all
</files>
i use a similar thing to prevent my config files being accessed


parksto

or better
on first line :
;<?php exit(' you won\'t see my ini file'); ?>


phpcoder

Oops.  There is a small bug in my writeINIfile code example submitted on  13-Jan-2005 11:31.  How embarassing.  The incorrect statement is:
 if (substr($comtext, -1, 1)==$commentchar && substr($comtext, -1, 1)!=$commentchar) {
Note that this is a logic error and the statement will never execute.  It should have been written as:
 if (substr($comtext, -1, 1)==$commentchar && substr($commenttext, -1, 1)!=$commentchar) {
Notice how in the corrected statement, the string passed to the second substr() function call is $commenttext and not $comtext.
The purpose of this statement was to determine when to strip off the extra comment character that inadvertently gets appended to the comment text block by the previous compounded str_replace code (to prepend comment characters on each line of the comment text block) when the original comment text ends with a new-line sequence.


alex

Note these will be converted to '1' and '0'
[section]
foo = yes
bar = no
Therefore, they need to be put between brackets if you want the value to be 'yes' and 'no'.


www.onphp5.com

Looks like in PHP 5.3.0 special characters like \n are extrapolated into real newlines. Gotta use \\n.

ludvig dot ericson

kieran dot huggins at rogers dot com:
You can just use their HEX equivalent, like so:
0x20


kieran dot huggins

Just a quick note for all those running into trouble escaping double quotes:
I got around this by "base64_encode()"-ing my content on the way in to the ini file, and "base64_decode()"-ing on the way out.
Because base64 uses the "=" sign, you will have to encapsulate the entire value in double quotes so the line looks like this:
   varname = "TmlhZ2FyYSBGYWxscywgT04="
When base64'd, your strings will retain all \n, \t...etc...  URL's retain everything perfectly :-)
I hope some of you find this useful!
Cheers, Kieran


joshuastarr

It should be noted that in all of our attempts you cannot escape a double quote in the value when read with the parse_ini_file() function.
;============================
; Example Configuration File
;============================
[category]
title = "Best Scripting Language"
desc = "See <a href=\"http://www.php.net/\">PHP</a>!"
If this file is read by parse_ini_file() the link value will not be set because of the escaped double quotes.


rus dot grafx

Instead of using parse_ini_file() function I would recommend to use PEAR's Config package which is MUCH more flexible (assuming that you don't mind using PEAR and OOP). Have a closer look at http://pear.php.net/package/Config

sam

In addition to the note that "Parsing an ini file stops at a key named 'none'".
Values of 'none' do not return as the string 'none'. They return nothing at all, however this does not halt the processing of the ini file.


10-may-2003 12:05

If your configuration file holds any sensitive information (such as database login details), remember NOT to place it within your document root folder! A common mistake is to replace config.inc.php files, which are formatted in PHP:
<?php
$database['host'] = 'localhost';
// etc...
?>
With config.ini files which are written in plain text:
[database]
host = localhost
The file config.ini can be read by anyone who knows where it's located, if it's under your document root folder. Remember to place it above!


judas dot iscariote

If you are looking for an OOP way to parse ini files, take a look at Marcus Boerger's  IniGroups  class available here :
http://www.php.net/~helly/php/ext/spl/classIniGroups.html


mildred

I wrote few functions to work with ini files.
The function make_ini_file($array, &$errors)
The function read_ini($file)
The function prepare_ini($array, $maxdepth=NULL)
The function prepare_ini($array, $maxdepth=NULL)
This function will take an array as returned by the function read_ini() and will return an array as needed by the function make_ini_file() so that you can write extanded ini files easily.
If maxdepth is not given (or if maxdepth is NULL), this function will try to create sections so the keys in the sections do not have dots. if maxdepth is given, it will create sections with $maxdepth members in them (or less if it is not possible). It won't use the special key name "."
<?php
function prepare_ini($arr, $maxdepth=NULL){
   $res = array();
   prepare_ini__1($res, $arr, $maxdepth);
   return $res;
}
function prepare_ini__1(
   &$res, $arr, $maxdepth,
   $prefix1="", $prefix2="", $depth=0,
   $self='prepare_ini__1')
{
   foreach($arr as $key=>$val){
       if(is_array($val)){
           if(is_null($maxdepth) or $depth < $maxdepth){
               $newprefix = $prefix1 ? "$prefix1.$key" : $key;
               $self($res, $val, $maxdepth, $newprefix, $prefix2, $depth+1);
           }else{
               $newprefix = $prefix2 ? "$prefix1.$key" : $key;
               $self($res, $val, $maxdepth, $prefix1, $newprefix, $depth+1);
           }
       }else{
           $newprefix = $prefix2 ? "$prefix2.$key" : $key;
           if(!isset($res[$prefix1])) $res[$prefix1] = array();
           $res[$prefix1][$newprefix] = $val;
       }
   }
}
// kate: indent-width 4; tab-width 8; space-indent on;
// kate: replace-tabs off; remove-trailing-space on;
?>


julio lópez garbayo
I wrote a replacement function with following changes:
-It allows quotes and double quotes.
-It detects wether your .ini file has sections or not.
-It will read until eof in any case, even if a line contains errors.
I know it can be improved a lot, so feel free to work on it and, please, notify me if you do.
<?php
function parse_ini_file_quotes_safe($f)
{
$r=$null;
$sec=$null;
$f=@file($f);
for ($i=0;$i<@count($f);$i++)
{
 $newsec=0;
 $w=@trim($f[$i]);
 if ($w)
 {
  if ((!$r) or ($sec))
  {
   if ((@substr($w,0,1)=="[") and (@substr($w,-1,1))=="]") {$sec=@substr($w,1,@strlen($w)-2);$newsec=1;}
  }
  if (!$newsec)
  {
   $w=@explode("=",$w);$k=@trim($w[0]);unset($w[0]); $v=@trim(@implode("=",$w));
   if ((@substr($v,0,1)=="\"") and (@substr($v,-1,1)=="\"")) {$v=@substr($v,1,@strlen($v)-2);}
   if ($sec) {$r[$sec][$k]=$v;} else {$r[$k]=$v;}
  }
 }
}
return $r;
}
?>


tertillian

I ran into a snag where I wanted to have an INI file for a library. All attempts to parse the file from the library, apart from hardcoded path qualification, failed because it couldn't find the INI file. Some of the php functions will optionally use the include path. Adding this to the parse_ini_file() function would permit its use in this way and would encourage not putting INI files in document root.

thuylnt

I need to read a ini file, modify some values in some sections, and save it. But the important thing is, i want to keep all the comments, the new lines in the right order. So i modified function parse_ini_file_quotes_safe and write_ini_file.
I think they work fine.
function read_ini_file($f, &$r)
{
$null = "";
$r=$null;
$first_char = "";
$sec=$null;
$comment_chars=";#";
$num_comments = "0";
$num_newline = "0";
//Read to end of file with the newlines still attached into $f
$f = @file($f);
if ($f === false) {
return -2;
}
// Process all lines from 0 to count($f)
for ($i=0; $i<@count($f); $i++)
{
$w=@trim($f[$i]);
$first_char = @substr($w,0,1);
if ($w)
{
if ((@substr($w,0,1)=="[") and (@substr($w,-1,1))=="]") {
$sec=@substr($w,1,@strlen($w)-2);
$num_comments = 0;
$num_newline = 0;
}
else if ((stristr($comment_chars, $first_char) == true)) {
$r[$sec]["Comment_".$num_comments]=$w;
$num_comments = $num_comments +1;
}
else {
// Look for the = char to allow us to split the section into key and value
$w=@explode("=",$w);
$k=@trim($w[0]);
unset($w[0]);
$v=@trim(@implode("=",$w));
// look for the new lines
if ((@substr($v,0,1)=="\"") and (@substr($v,-1,1)=="\"")) {
$v=@substr($v,1,@strlen($v)-2);
}

$r[$sec][$k]=$v;

}
}
else {
$r[$sec]["Newline_".$num_newline]=$w;
$num_newline = $num_newline +1;
}
}
return 1;
}
function write_ini_file($path, $assoc_arr) {
$content = "";
foreach ($assoc_arr as $key=>$elem) {
if (is_array($elem)) {
if ($key != '') {
$content .= "[".$key."]\r\n";
}

foreach ($elem as $key2=>$elem2) {
if ($this->beginsWith($key2,'Comment_') == 1 && $this->beginsWith($elem2,';')) {
$content .= $elem2."\r\n";
}
else if ($this->beginsWith($key2,'Newline_') == 1 && ($elem2 == '')) {
$content .= $elem2."\r\n";
}
else {
$content .= $key2." = ".$elem2."\r\n";
}
}
}
else {
$content .= $key." = ".$elem."\r\n";
}
}
if (!$handle = fopen($path, 'w')) {
   return -2;
}
if (!fwrite($handle, $content)) {
   return -2;
}
fclose($handle);
return 1;
}
function beginsWith( $str, $sub ) {
return ( substr( $str, 0, strlen( $sub ) ) === $sub );
}


mhall

I modified phpcoder's readINIFile function to allow multi-lined values. Adding a backslash (\) to the end of a line indicates that the whole of the next line should be appended to the value.  Leading whitespace is ignored on continues lines, whitespace before the backslash is preserved. This is the same as the Java Properties spec: http://java.sun.com/j2se/1.4.2/docs/api/java/util/Properties.html
<?php
function readINIfile ($filename, $commentchar) {
 $array1 = file($filename);
 $section = '';
 for ($line_num = 0; $line_num <= sizeof($array1); $line_num++) {
  $filedata = $array1[$line_num];
  $dataline = trim($filedata);
  $firstchar = substr($dataline, 0, 1);
  if ($firstchar!=$commentchar && $dataline!='') {
    //It's an entry (not a comment and not a blank line)
    if ($firstchar == '[' && substr($dataline, -1, 1) == ']') {
      //It's a section
      $section = strtolower(substr($dataline, 1, -1));
    }else{
      //It's a key...
      $delimiter = strpos($dataline, '=');
      if ($delimiter > 0) {
        //...with a value
        $key = strtolower(trim(substr($dataline, 0, $delimiter)));
        $array2[$section][$key] = '';
        $value = trim(substr($dataline, $delimiter + 1));
        while (substr($value, -1, 1) == '\\') {
            //...value continues on the next line
            $value = substr($value, 0, strlen($value)-1);
            $array2[$section][$key] .= stripcslashes($value);
            $line_num++;
            $value = trim($array1[$line_num]);
        }
        $array2[$section][$key] .= stripcslashes($value);
        $array2[$section][$key] = trim($array2[$section][$key]);
        if (substr($array2[$section][$key], 0, 1) == '"' && substr($array2[$section][$key], -1, 1) == '"') {
           $array2[$section][$key] = substr($array2[$section][$key], 1, -1);
        }
      }else{
        //...without a value
        $array2[$section][strtolower(trim($dataline))]='';
      }
    }
  }else{
    //It's a comment or blank line.  Ignore.
  }
 }
 return $array2;
}
?>


nick deppe

I just noticed that the code I wrote before had an error in it.  I have the fix posted here:  
That is what happens when you don't error check the code first.  Duh.
Here is yet another version of write_ini_file.  This version takes data types into account.  If the file is numeric or boolean, the value is written in the ini file without quotes.  Else it will be written with quotes.
Please note that if a string that CAN be converted into a number WILL be converted into a number because I used the is_numeric function.  If you want to make sure that the data type is strictly preserved, use the is_integer and is_double functions in place of the is_numeric function.
<?php
if(!function_exists('write_ini_file')) {
 function write_ini_file($path, $assoc_array) {
  foreach($assoc_array as $key => $item) {
    if(is_array($item)) {
      $content .= "\n[{$key}]\n";
      foreach ($item as $key2 => $item2) {
        if(is_numeric($item2) || is_bool($item2))
          $content .= "{$key2} = {$item2}\n";
        else
          $content .= "{$key2} = \"{$item2}\"\n";
      }        
    } else {
      if(is_numeric($item) || is_bool($item))
        $content .= "{$key} = {$item}\n";
      else
        $content .= "{$key} = \"{$item}\"\n";
    }
  }        
  if(!$handle = fopen($path, 'w')) {
    return false;
  }
  if(!fwrite($handle, $content)) {
    return false;
  }
  fclose($handle);
  return true;
 }
}
?>


rossetti

I have modified the code to delete double quote from values.
if (substr($value, 0, 1) == '"' && substr($value, -1) == '"') { $value = substr($value, 1, -1); }


dreamscape

I handy function to allow values with new lines if you are PHP4, is the following:
<?php
function prepareIniNl($string) {
return preg_replace("/(\r\n|\n|\r)/", "\\n", $string);
}
?>
Now, when writing your INI file, parse the value through the function and it will turn for example:
Value line 1
Value line 2
Into literally:
Value line 1\nValue line 2
Which is stored as a single line in the INI file.  And when you read the INI file back into PHP, the \n will be parsed and you're value will be back to:
Value line 1
Value line 2


ahull

I had a look at the code for function parse_ini_file_quotes_safe(
and added in the ability to preserve comments.
<?php
// Parse a file into an array following the rules for ini files as follows
//
// Looks for [] characters to mark section headings and = chars to mark the break between the key and its values.
// Also keeps comments delimited by any of the characters in $comments_chars in the array numbered as they are found.
//
// Note writing back the array will necessarily move the comments to the beginning of the section,
// even if they are found within
// a section simply because there is no exact place-holder information stored in the array.
// This could of course be a problem.
// Also the Write array routine will have to be modified
// to correctly write back comments otherwise they will appear as blank sections called [comment{x}]
function parse_ini_file_quotes_safe($f)
{
$newline = "
";
$null = "";
$r=$null;
$first_char = "";
$sec=$null;
$comment_chars="/*<;#?>";
$num_comments = "0";
$header_section = "";
//Read to end of file with the newlines still attached into $f
$f=@file($f);
// Process all lines from 0 to count($f)
for ($i=0;$i<@count($f);$i++)
{
 $newsec=0;
 $w=@trim($f[$i]);
 $first_char = @substr($w,0,1);
 if ($w)
 {
  if ((!$r) or ($sec))
  {
  // Look for [] chars round section headings
  if ((@substr($w,0,1)=="[") and (@substr($w,-1,1))=="]") {$sec=@substr($w,1,@strlen($w)-2);$newsec=1;}
  // Look for comments and number into array
  if ((stristr($comment_chars, $first_char) === FALSE)) {} else {$sec=$w;$k="Comment".$num_comments;$num_comments = $num_comments +1;$v=$w;$newsec=1;$r[$k]=$v;echo "comment".$w.$newline;}
  //
  }
  if (!$newsec)
  {
  //
  // Look for the = char to allow us to split the section into key and value
  $w=@explode("=",$w);$k=@trim($w[0]);unset($w[0]); $v=@trim(@implode("=",$w));
  // look for the new lines
  if ((@substr($v,0,1)=="\"") and (@substr($v,-1,1)=="\"")) {$v=@substr($v,1,@strlen($v)-2);}
  if ($sec) {$r[$sec][$k]=$v;} else {$r[$k]=$v;}
  }
 }
}
return $r;
}
?>


waikeatnospam

I found that this function will not work on remote files.
I tried
$someArray = parse_ini_file("http://www.someweb.com/setting.ini");
and it reports
Cannot Open 'http://www.someweb.com/setting.ini' for reading ...


dshearin

I found another pitfall to watch out for. The key (to the left of the equal sign) can't be the same as one of the predefined values, like yes, no, on, off, etc. I was working on a script that read in an ini file that matched the country codes of top level domains to the full name of the country. I kept getting a parse error everytime it got to the entry for Norway ("no"). I fixed the problem by sticking a dot in front of each of the country codes.

arnapou

I didn't find a simple ini class so I wrote that class to read and write ini files.
I hope it could help you.
Read file : $ini = INI::read('myfile.ini');
Write file : INI::write('myfile.ini', $ini);
Features :
- support [] syntax for arrays
- support . in keys like bar.foo.something = value
- true and false string are automatically converted in booleans
- integers strings are automatically converted in integers
- keys are sorted when writing
- constants are replaced but they should be written in the ini file between braces : {MYCONSTANT}
<?php
class INI {
/**
*  WRITE
*/
static function write($filename, $ini) {
$string = '';
foreach(array_keys($ini) as $key) {
$string .= '['.$key."]\n";
$string .= INI::write_get_string($ini[$key], '')."\n";
}
file_put_contents($filename, $string);
}
/**
*  write get string
*/
static function write_get_string(& $ini, $prefix) {
$string = '';
ksort($ini);
foreach($ini as $key => $val) {
if (is_array($val)) {
$string .= INI::write_get_string($ini[$key], $prefix.$key.'.');
} else {
$string .= $prefix.$key.' = '.str_replace("\n", "\\\n", INI::set_value($val))."\n";
}
}
return $string;
}
/**
*  manage keys
*/
static function set_value($val) {
if ($val === true) { return 'true'; }
else if ($val === false) { return 'false'; }
return $val;
}
/**
*  READ
*/
static function read($filename) {
$ini = array();
$lines = file($filename);
$section = 'default';
$multi = '';
foreach($lines as $line) {
if (substr($line, 0, 1) !== ';') {
$line = str_replace("\r", "", str_replace("\n", "", $line));
if (preg_match('/^\[(.*)\]/', $line, $m)) {
$section = $m[1];
} else if ($multi === '' && preg_match('/^([a-z0-9_.\[\]-]+)\s*=\s*(.*)$/i', $line, $m)) {
$key = $m[1];
$val = $m[2];
if (substr($val, -1) !== "\\") {
$val = trim($val);
INI::manage_keys($ini[$section], $key, $val);
$multi = '';
} else {
$multi = substr($val, 0, -1)."\n";
}
} else if ($multi !== '') {
if (substr($line, -1) === "\\") {
$multi .= substr($line, 0, -1)."\n";
} else {
INI::manage_keys($ini[$section], $key, $multi.$line);
$multi = '';
}
}
}
}

$buf = get_defined_constants(true);
$consts = array();
foreach($buf['user'] as $key => $val) {
$consts['{'.$key.'}'] = $val;
}
array_walk_recursive($ini, array('INI', 'replace_consts'), $consts);
return $ini;
}
/**
*  manage keys
*/
static function get_value($val) {
if (preg_match('/^-?[0-9]$/i', $val)) { return intval($val); }
else if (strtolower($val) === 'true') { return true; }
else if (strtolower($val) === 'false') { return false; }
else if (preg_match('/^"(.*)"$/i', $val, $m)) { return $m[1]; }
else if (preg_match('/^\'(.*)\'$/i', $val, $m)) { return $m[1]; }
return $val;
}
/**
*  manage keys
*/
static function get_key($val) {
if (preg_match('/^[0-9]$/i', $val)) { return intval($val); }
return $val;
}
/**
*  manage keys
*/
static function manage_keys(& $ini, $key, $val) {
if (preg_match('/^([a-z0-9_-]+)\.(.*)$/i', $key, $m)) {
INI::manage_keys($ini[$m[1]], $m[2], $val);
} else if (preg_match('/^([a-z0-9_-]+)\[(.*)\]$/i', $key, $m)) {
if ($m[2] !== '') {
$ini[$m[1]][INI::get_key($m[2])] = INI::get_value($val);
} else {
$ini[$m[1]][] = INI::get_value($val);
}
} else {
$ini[INI::get_key($key)] = INI::get_value($val);
}
}
/**
*  replace utility
*/
static function replace_consts(& $item, $key, $consts) {
if (is_string($item)) {
$item = strtr($item, $consts);
}
}
}
?>


phpcoder

Here's a much better way of reading and writing INI files.  (much fewer character restrictions, automatic comment header, binary safe, etc.)
<?php
/*
Function to replace PHP's parse_ini_file() with much fewer restritions, and
a matching function to write to a .INI file, both of which are binary safe.
Version 1.0
Copyright (C) 2005 Justin Frim <phpcoder@cyberpimp.pimpdomain.com>
Sections can use any character excluding ASCII control characters and ASCII
DEL.  (You may even use [ and ] characters as literals!)
Keys can use any character excluding ASCII control characters, ASCII DEL,
ASCII equals sign (=), and not start with the user-defined comment
character.
Values are binary safe (encoded with C-style backslash escape codes) and may
be enclosed by double-quotes (to retain leading & trailing spaces).
User-defined comment character can be any non-white-space ASCII character
excluding ASCII opening bracket ([).
readINIfile() is case-insensitive when reading sections and keys, returning
an array with lower-case keys.
writeINIfile() writes sections and keys with first character capitalization.
Invalid characters are converted to ASCII dash / hyphen (-).  Values are
always enclosed by double-quotes.
writeINIfile() also provides a method to automatically prepend a comment
header from ASCII text with line breaks, regardless of whether CRLF, LFCR,
CR, or just LF line break sequences are used!  (All line breaks are
translated to CRLF)
*/
function readINIfile ($filename, $commentchar) {
 $array1 = file($filename);
 $section = '';
 foreach ($array1 as $filedata) {
   $dataline = trim($filedata);
   $firstchar = substr($dataline, 0, 1);
   if ($firstchar!=$commentchar && $dataline!='') {
     //It's an entry (not a comment and not a blank line)
     if ($firstchar == '[' && substr($dataline, -1, 1) == ']') {
       //It's a section
       $section = strtolower(substr($dataline, 1, -1));
     }else{
       //It's a key...
       $delimiter = strpos($dataline, '=');
       if ($delimiter > 0) {
         //...with a value
         $key = strtolower(trim(substr($dataline, 0, $delimiter)));
         $value = trim(substr($dataline, $delimiter + 1));
         if (substr($value, 1, 1) == '"' && substr($value, -1, 1) == '"') { $value = substr($value, 1, -1); }
         $array2[$section][$key] = stripcslashes($value);
       }else{
         //...without a value
         $array2[$section][strtolower(trim($dataline))]='';
       }
     }
   }else{
     //It's a comment or blank line.  Ignore.
   }
 }
 return $array2;
}
function writeINIfile ($filename, $array1, $commentchar, $commenttext) {
 $handle = fopen($filename, 'wb');
 if ($commenttext!='') {
   $comtext = $commentchar.
     str_replace($commentchar, "\r\n".$commentchar,
       str_replace ("\r", $commentchar,
         str_replace("\n", $commentchar,
           str_replace("\n\r", $commentchar,
             str_replace("\r\n", $commentchar, $commenttext)
           )
         )
       )
     )
   ;
   if (substr($comtext, -1, 1)==$commentchar && substr($comtext, -1, 1)!=$commentchar) {
     $comtext = substr($comtext, 0, -1);
   }
   fwrite ($handle, $comtext."\r\n");
 }
 foreach ($array1 as $sections => $items) {
   //Write the section
   if (isset($section)) { fwrite ($handle, "\r\n"); }
   //$section = ucfirst(preg_replace('/[\0-\37]|[\177-\377]/', "-", $sections));
   $section = ucfirst(preg_replace('/[\0-\37]|\177/', "-", $sections));
   fwrite ($handle, "[".$section."]\r\n");
   foreach ($items as $keys => $values) {
     //Write the key/value pairs
     //$key = ucfirst(preg_replace('/[\0-\37]|=|[\177-\377]/', "-", $keys));
     $key = ucfirst(preg_replace('/[\0-\37]|=|\177/', "-", $keys));
     if (substr($key, 0, 1)==$commentchar) { $key = '-'.substr($key, 1); }
     $value = ucfirst(addcslashes($values,''));
     fwrite ($handle, '    '.$key.' = "'.$value."\"\r\n");
   }
 }
 fclose($handle);
}
?>


tomasz.frelik

Here is a better version of write_ini_file() function, which can found below. This version allows you to use sections and still have "global" variables in ini file. The structure of resulting ini file mirrors the structure of the array passed to the function. You can have sections or no, it's up to you.
function write_ini_file($path, $assoc_array) {
foreach ($assoc_array as $key => $item) {
if (is_array($item)) {
$content .= "\n[$key]\n";
foreach ($item as $key2 => $item2) {
$content .= "$key2 = \"$item2\"\n";
}
} else {
$content .= "$key = \"$item\"\n";
}
}

if (!$handle = fopen($path, 'w')) {
return false;
}
if (!fwrite($handle, $content)) {
return false;
}
fclose($handle);
return true;
}


php

Even better than putting the <?php at the head of the file is to do something like this:
--config.ini.php--
; <?php die( 'Please do not access this page directly.' ); ?>
; This is the settings page, do not modify the above line.
setting = value
...


dimk

Class to access ini values at format "section_name.property", for example $myconf->get("system.name") returns a property "name" in section "system":
class Settings {
var $properties = array();
   function Settings() {
$this->properties = parse_ini_file(_SETTINGS_FILE, true);
   }
function get($name) {
if(strpos($name, ".")) {
list($section_name, $property) = explode(".", $name);
$section =& $this->properties[$section_name];
$name = $property;
} else {
$section =& $properties;
}
if(is_array($section) && isset($section[$name])) {
return $section[$name];
}
return false;
}
}


bkw

Beware that currently you cannot have a closing square bracket (]) in any of the values if you are using sections, no matter how you quote.
See: http://bugs.php.net/bug.php?id=28804
This bug also seems to affect PEAR::Config.


fbeyer

Besides the features mentioned above (eg. core constants, booleans), you can also access user-defined constants in ini files! This is handy if you want to create a bit-field, for example:
+++ PHP +++
// Define pizza toppings
define('PIZZA_HAM',           1);
define('PIZZA_PINEAPPLE',     2);
define('PIZZA_ONION',         4);
define('PIZZA_MOZARELLA',     8);
define('PIZZA_GARLIC',        16);
// Read predefined pizzas
$pizzas = parse_ini_file('pizzas.ini');
if ($pizzas[$user_pizza] & PIZZA_ONION) {
   // Add onions to the pizza
}
+++ INI +++
[pizzas]
; Define pizzas
hawaii = PIZZA_HAM | PIZZA_PINEAPPLE
stinky = PIZZA_ONION | PIZZA_GARLIC


nbraczek

Beside the mentioned reserved words 'null', 'yes', 'no', 'true', and 'false', also 'none' seems to be a reserved word. Parsing an ini file stops at a key named 'none'.

sly

Be careful with the string "none", for example if you want to save a CSS border-style in your config.ini file :
[style]
borderstyle=none
will return:
  'style' => array ( 'borderstyle' => '' )
and not
  'style' => array ( 'borderstyle' => 'none' )
The solution is to quote the string none :
[style]
borderstyle="none"


mauder remove

Be careful if you put any .ini file in your readable directories, if somebody would know the name (e.g. if your application is widely used), the webserver might return it as plain text.
For example : your database username and password could be exposed, if it is stored in that file !
To prevent this from happening :
- give the file .php extension :  "my.ini.php"
- put ';<?php' (without quotes and without X between X and php) on first line
- put ';?>' on last line
The server would run the ini file as being PHP-code, but will do nothing due to bad syntax, preventing the content from being exosed.
On the other hand, it is still a valid .ini file...
HTH !


jomel k95vz5f02

based entirely on LIU student's code (thanks), here's a write_ini_file function you can use whether or not the array you are writing is sorted into sections.
It is designed so that $arr1 equals $arr2 in both the cases below, using sections:
<?php
$arr1 = parse_ini_file($filename, true);
write_ini_file(parse_ini_file($filename, true), $filename, true);
$arr2 = parse_ini_file($filename, true);
?>
and without sections:
<?php
$arr1 = parse_ini_file($filename);
write_ini_file(parse_ini_file($filename), $filename);
$arr2 = parse_ini_file($filename);
?>
i.e. files written using write_ini_file will be semantically identical (as far as parse_ini_file can see) to the originals.
Here is the code:
<?php
if (!function_exists('write_ini_file')) {
function write_ini_file($assoc_arr, $path, $has_sections=FALSE) {
$content = "";
if ($has_sections) {
foreach ($assoc_arr as $key=>$elem) {
$content .= "[".$key."]\n";
foreach ($elem as $key2=>$elem2) {
$content .= $key2." = \"".$elem2."\"\n";
}
}
}
else {
foreach ($assoc_arr as $key=>$elem) {
$content .= $key." = \"".$elem."\"\n";
}
}
if (!$handle = fopen($path, 'w')) {
return false;
}
if (!fwrite($handle, $content)) {
return false;
}
fclose($handle);
return true;
}
}
?>
Incidentally I wrapped it inside an if (!function_exists(...)) block so you can just put this wherever it's needed in your code without having to worry about it being declared several times.
Warning: if you read an ini file then write it using <?php write_ini_file(parse_ini_file($fname), $fname); ?>, any sections will obviously be lost.
Note also: unquoted values will be quoted and varname=true will become varname = "1" when writing an ini file back to itself using <?php write_ini_file(parse_ini_file($fname, true), $fname, true); ?> or <?php write_ini_file(parse_ini_file($fname), $fname); ?>. This should make no difference, but it might cause the types of the variables to change in case you plan on using === or !== comparisions.


nospam_phpnet

As a Java programmer, I find PHPs lack of handing of multi-line ".properties" files a bit of a pain. I didn't see PEAR::Config handle this, so I hacked together a quick Properties class. This is by no means complete. It works for me, but I'm sure that someone can improve it. I'm also not an expert in PHP, so it may look like a kludge. Anyway, here it is:
<?php
/*
* Properties class. Similar to Java Properties, deals with multi-line
* properties files.
*
*  Created on Jan 17, 2005
*
* @author Michael V. Scovetta
* This code is released under the GPL license.
*/
class Properties {  
var $properties;
  var $keyValueSeparators = "=: \t\r\n";
  var $whiteSpaceChars = " \t\r\n";
 
  function Properties($file = null) {
  $this->properties = array();
  if ($file) {
  $this->load($file);
  }
  }
 
 
  function set_property( $key, $value ) {
    $this->properties[$key] = $value;
}

function get_property( $key ) {
return $this->properties[$key];
}

function load( $file ) {
$lines = file($file);
$lc = 0;
$cont = false;
foreach ($lines as $line) {
if (!$cont) {
$line = ltrim($line, $this->whiteSpaceChars);
$key = $this->findFirstIn($line, $this->keyValueSeparators);

if ($key === false)
continue;

$value = substr($line, $key+2);
$value = trim($value, $this->whiteSpaceChars);

$key = substr($line, 0, $key+1);
$key = trim($key, $this->whiteSpaceChars);

if (substr($value, strlen($value)-1, 1) === '\\') {
$value = substr($value, 0, strlen($value)-1);
$cont = true;
} else {
$this->properties[$key] = $value;
}
} else {
$line = trim($line, $this->whiteSpaceChars);
if (substr($line, strlen($line)-1, 1) === '\\') {
$value .= substr($line, 0, strlen($line)-1);
} else {
$cont = false;
$value .= $line;
$this->properties[$key] = $value;
}
}
}
}

function continueLine($line) {
$slashCount = 0;
$index = strlen($line) - 1;
while (($index >= 0) && (substr($line, $index--, 1) == '\\'))
$slashCount++;
return ($slashCount % 2 == 1);
}

/**
* Finds the first occurance of any character of $choices in $txt
*/
function findFirstIn( $txt, $choices, $start = null)
{
  $pos = -1;
  $arr = array();
  for ($i=0; $i<strlen($choices); $i++) {
  array_push($arr, substr($choices, $i, 1));
  }
  foreach( $arr as $v ) {
      $p = strpos( $txt, $v, $start );
      if ($p===FALSE)
          continue;
      if (($p<$pos)||($pos==-1))
          $pos = $p;
  }
  return $pos;
}
function toArray() {
return $this->properties;
}
}
?>


adam

Arrays can be defined in the ini file by adding '[]' at the end of a key name. For example:
value1 = 17
value2 = 13
value3[] = a
value3[] = b
value3[] = c
Will return:
Array
(
   [value1] => 17
   [value2] => 13
   [value3] => Array
       (
           [0] => a
           [1] => b
           [2] => c
       )
)


bob

And for the extra-paranoid like myself, add a rule into your httpd.conf file so that *.ini (or *.inc) in my case can't be sent to a browser:
<Files *.inc>  
   Order deny,allow
   Deny from all
</Files>


ant

A number of posts mention using pear::Config as a replacement for this function. Note however that internally it uses parse_ini_file to read the ini file, so it suffers from the same limitations.

forceone

A better version of parse_ini_str that takes into account values that are named the same.
<?php
function parse_ini_str($Str,$ProcessSections = TRUE) {
  $Section = NULL;
  $Data = array();
  if ($Temp = strtok($Str,"\r\n")) {
     do {
        switch ($Temp{0}) {
           case ';':
           case '#':
              break;
           case '[':
              if (!$ProcessSections) {
                 break;
              }
              $Pos = strpos($Temp,'[');
              $Section = substr($Temp,$Pos+1,strpos($Temp,']',$Pos)-1);
              $Data[$Section] = array();
              break;
        default:
           $Pos = strpos($Temp,'=');
           if ($Pos === FALSE) {
              break;
           }
           $Value = array();
           $Value["NAME"] = trim(substr($Temp,0,$Pos));
           $Value["VALUE"] = trim(substr($Temp,$Pos+1),' "');
           
           if ($ProcessSections) {
              $Data[$Section][] = $Value;
           }
           else {
              $Data[] = $Value;
           }
           break;
        }
     } while ($Temp = strtok("\r\n"));
  }
  return $Data;
}
?>
Example:
[Files]
File=File1
File=File2
would return:
array (
  'Files' => array (
     0 => array (
        'NAME' => 'File',
        'VALUE' => File1',
     ),
     1 => array (
        'NAME' => 'File',
        'VALUE' => 'File2',
     ),
  ),
)


christian

@phpcoder:
there is another small bug in your code. in readINIfile the line
if (substr($value, 1, 1) == '"' && substr($value, -1, 1) == '"') {$value = substr($value, 1, -1); }
should be
if (substr($value, 0, 1) == '"' && substr($value, -1, 1) == '"') {$value = substr($value, 1, -1); }
(note the 0 in the first substr statement)
otherwise if you read an ini file, save it and read again the items of the array will have " around them.


dawalama

/*
* Search_ini_file refined.
*/
function search_ini_file ( $filename, $search_param, $return_section = false )
{
       $search_key =   (isset($search_param['key'])?$search_param['key']:false);
       $search_value = (isset($search_param['value'])?$search_param['value']:false);
       if ( !($search_key !==false || $search_value !==false) ){
               return false;
       }
       $retvalue = false;
       $handle = fopen($filename, 'r');
       if ( ($search_key !== false) && ($search_value !== false) ){
               $key_found = false;
               $retvalue['key'] = false;
               $retvalue['value'] = false;
               while( !feof($handle) ) {
                       $line = trim(fgets($handle, 4096));
                       if (preg_match("/^\[$search_key\].*?$/s",$line)){
                               $key_found = true;
                               $retvalue['key'] = true;
                               continue;
                       }
                       if ($key_found){
                               if (preg_match("/^\[.*?$/", trim($line))){
                                       break;
                               }else{
                                       if ($return_section){
                                               if ($line != '') {
                                                       list($k, $v) = split("=", $line);
                                                       $retvalue[$search_key][$k] = preg_replace("/;.*$/", "", $v);
                                               }   }   }
                               if (preg_match("/^$search_value\s*?=.*$/", $line)){
                                       $retvalue['value'] = true;
                                       break;
                               }   }  }
       }elseif ($search_key !== false){
               $keyfound = false;
               while ( !feof($handle) ){
                       $line = trim(fgets($handle, 4096));
                       if (preg_match("/^\[$search_key\].*?$/s",$line)){
                               $retvalue  = true;
                               if (!$return_section){
                                       break;
                               }else{
                                       $retvalue = Array();
                                       $keyfound = true;
                                       continue;
                               }  }
                       if ( $keyfound ){
                               if (preg_match("/^\[.*?$/", trim($line))){
                                       break;
                               }else{
                                       if ($return_section){
                                               if ($line != ''){
                                                       list($k, $v) = split("=", $line);
                                                       $retvalue[$search_key][$k] = preg_replace("/;.*$/", "", $v);
                                               }   }  }  }  }
       }elseif ($search_value !== false){
               while ( !feof($handle) ){
                       $line = trim(fgets($handle, 4096));
                       if (preg_match("/^$search_value\s*?=.*$/", $line)){
                               $retvalue = true;
                               if ($return_section){
                                       $retvalue = array();
                                       if ($line != ''){
                                               list($k, $v) = split("=", $line);
                                               $retvalue[$k] = preg_replace("/;.*$/", "", $v);
                                       }  }
                               break;
                       }   }  }
       fclose($handle);
       return $retvalue;
}


egingell

<?php
// Parse an INI formatted string. Requires read/write access to the filesystem.
function parse_ini_text ($text, $sections = false) {
   $temp_dir = 'wherever that might be';
   $prefix = 'whatever that might be';
   $file = tempnam($temp_dir, $prefix); // File name should be as unique as possible to avoid collisions.
   $fp = fopen($file, 'w');
   fwrite($fp, $text);
   fclose($fp); // Required on windows or the next line may fail!
   $ret = parse_ini_file($file, $sections);
   unlink($file);
   return $ret;
}
?>


georg

<?php
/**
* Function to create lower-case key references to parse_ini_file() result.
* Copyright (C) 2005  Joosep-Georg Järvemaa <georg@linux.ee>
*
    * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
* modify it under the terms of the GNU Lesser General Public
* License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
* version 2.1 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
*
* This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
* Lesser General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU Lesser General Public
* License along with this library; if not, write to the Free Software
* Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA
*/
/**
* Creates lower-case references to configuration array loaded from .INI.
*
* Function uses recursion to dive into configuration sub-sections and
* marks already checked sections with additional key '_ns_ini_lcrefs'.
*
* @param arr Configuration array.
*/
function ns_ini_lcrefs(& $arr) {
foreach (array_keys($arr) as $_k) {
if (is_array($arr[$_k]) && !isset($arr[$_k]['_ns_ini_lcrefs']))
ns_ini_lcrefs($arr[$_k]);
if (($_lc_k = strtolower($_k)) != $_k)
$arr[$_lc_k] =& $arr[$_k];
}
$arr['_ns_ini_lcrefs'] = true;
} // function ns_ini_lcrefs()
/* EOF */
?>


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