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String : Object

Represents the characters of a string.

Platform Support

IE Mozilla Netscape Opera Safari
3.0+ 1.0+ 2.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

Constructors

Constructor Action IE Mozilla Netscape Opera Safari
String Constructor(String string) : String
Constructs an instance of a String.
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String(String string) : String

Constructs an instance of a String.

Parameters

String string Any string.

Returns

String

Properties

Property Action IE Mozilla Netscape Opera Safari
constructor : Object
Specifies the function that creates the String prototype.
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See Also

constructor

Availability

JavaScript 1.1|JScript 2.0|ECMAScript v1

length : Number
Number of characters in the string.
Show Details 3.0+ 1.0+ 2.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

The following example displays 8 in an Alert dialog box:

var x = "Netscape";
                        alert("The string length is " + x.length);
Remarks

This property returns the number of characters in the string. For an empty string, length is 0.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

prototype : Object
Reference to the String prototype object.
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Availability

JavaScript 1.1|JScript 2.0|ECMAScript v1

Functions

Method Action IE Mozilla Netscape Opera Safari
anchor(String name) : String
Returns a copy of a string as an HTML anchor. (e.g <a name="name">
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Parameters

String name String to be copied into an HTML anchor.

Returns

String

Example: Using anchor

The following example code within an HTML script element:

var myString = "Table of Contents";
                        document.writeln(myString.anchor("contents_anchor"));
                        

will output the following HTML:

<A NAME="contents_anchor">Table of Contents</A>
Remarks

Use the anchor method with the document.write or document.writeln methods to programmatically create and display an anchor in a document. Create the anchor with the anchor method, and then call write or writeln to display the anchor in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the anchor.

In the syntax, the text string represents the literal text that you want the user to see. The nameAttribute string represents the NAME attribute of the A tag.

Anchors created with the anchor method become elements in the document.anchors array.

See Also

link

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

big() : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <big></big> HTML tags.
Show Details 3.0+ 1.0+ 2.0+ 7.0+ no

Returns

String

Example: Using big

The following example uses string methods to change the size of a string:

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        
                        document.write(worldString.small())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.big())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.fontsize(7))
                        
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P><SMALL>Hello, world</SMALL>
                        <P><BIG>Hello, world</BIG>
                        <P><FONTSIZE=7>Hello, world</FONTSIZE>
Remarks

Use the big method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.

See Also

fontsize|small

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

blink() : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <blink></blink> HTML tags.
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Returns

String

Example: Using string methods to change the formatting of a string

The following example uses string methods to change the formatting of a string:

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        
                        document.write(worldString.blink())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.bold())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.italics())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.strike())
                        
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P><BLINK>Hello, world</BLINK>
                        <P><B>Hello, world</B>
                        <P><I>Hello, world</I>
                        <P><STRIKE>Hello, world</STRIKE>
Remarks

Use the blink method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.

See Also

bold|italics|strike

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

bold() : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <bold></bold> HTML tags.
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Returns

String

Example: Using string methods to change the formatting of a string

The following example uses string methods to change the formatting of a string:

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        
                        document.write(worldString.blink())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.bold())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.italics())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.strike())
                        
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P><BLINK>Hello, world</BLINK>
                        <P><B>Hello, world</B>
                        <P><I>Hello, world</I>
                        <P><STRIKE>Hello, world</STRIKE>
Remarks

Use the bold method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.

See Also

blink|italics|strike

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

charAt(String index) : String
Returns the specified character from a string.
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Parameters

String index An integer between 0 and 1 less than the length of the string.

Returns

String

Displaying characters at different locations in a string

The following example displays characters at different locations in the string "Brave new world":

var anyString="Brave new world"
                        
                        document.writeln("The character at index 0 is " + anyString.charAt(0))
                        document.writeln("The character at index 1 is " + anyString.charAt(1))
                        document.writeln("The character at index 2 is " + anyString.charAt(2))
                        document.writeln("The character at index 3 is " + anyString.charAt(3))
                        document.writeln("The character at index 4 is " + anyString.charAt(4))

These lines display the following:

The
                        character at index 0 is B
                        The character at index 1 is r
                        The character at index 2 is a
                        The character at index 3 is v
                        The character at index 4 is e 
Remarks

Characters in a string are indexed from left to right. The index of the first character is 0, and the index of the last character in a string called stringName is stringName.length - 1. If the index you supply is out of range, JavaScript returns an empty string.

See Also

String.charCodeAt|String.indexOf|String.lastIndexOf

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0, ECMAScript v1

charCodeAt(Object index) : Number
Returns the the Unicode value of the character at the specified index.
Show Details 5.5+ 1.0+ 4.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

Parameters

Object index An integer between 0 and 1 less than the length of the string. The default value is 0.

Returns

Number

Using charCodeAt

The following example returns 65, the Unicode value for A.

"ABC".charCodeAt(0) // returns 65
Remarks

Unicode values range from 0 to 65,535. The first 128 Unicode values are a direct match of the ASCII character set.

See Also

String.charAt|String.fromCharCode

Availability

JavaScript 1.2|JScript 5.5|ECMAScript v1

concat(String string2...stringN) : String
Combines the text of two or more strings and returns a new string.
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Parameters

String string2...stringN (one-or-more)Strings to concatenate to this string.

Returns

String

Using concat

The following example combines strings into a new string.

s1="Oh "
                        s2="what a beautiful "
                        s3="mornin'."
                        s4=s1.concat(s2,s3) // returns "Oh what a beautiful mornin'."
Remarks
concat combines the text from one or more strings and returns a new string. Changes to the text in one string do not affect the other string.
See Also

Array.concat

Availability

JavaScript 1.2|JScript 3.0|ECMAScript v3

fixed() : void
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <tt></tt> tags.
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Example: Using fixed to change the formatting of a string

The following example uses the fixed method to change the formatting of a string:

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        document.write(worldString.fixed())
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

<TT>Hello, world</TT>
Remarks
Use the fixed method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.
Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

fontcolor(String color) : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <font color = "color"></font> tags.
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Parameters

String color A string expressing the color as either a hexadecimal RGB triplet or as a string literal.

Returns

String

Example: Using fontcolor

The following example uses the fontcolor method to change the color of a string:

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        
                        document.write(worldString.fontcolor("maroon") +  " is maroon in this line")
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.fontcolor("salmon") + " is salmon in this line")
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.fontcolor("red") + " is red in this line")
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.fontcolor("8000") + " is maroon in hexadecimal in this line")
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.fontcolor("FA8072") + " is salmon in hexadecimal in this line")
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.fontcolor("FF00") + " is red in hexadecimal in this line")
                        

The previous example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P><FONT COLOR="maroon">Hello, world</FONT> is maroon in this line
                        <P><FONT COLOR="salmon">Hello, world</FONT> is salmon in this line
                        <P><FONT COLOR="red">Hello, world</FONT> is red in this line
                        <P><FONT COLOR="8000">Hello, world</FONT> is maroon in hexadecimal in this line
                        <P><FONT COLOR="FA8072">Hello, world</FONT> is salmon in hexadecimal in this line
                        <P><FONT COLOR="FF00">Hello, world</FONT> is red in hexadecimal in this line
                        
Remarks

Use the fontcolor method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.

If you express color as a hexadecimal RGB triplet, you must use the format rrggbb. For example, the hexadecimal RGB values for salmon are red=FA, green=80, and blue=72, so the RGB triplet for salmon is "FA8072".

The fontcolor method overrides a value set in the fgColor property.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

fontsize(Number size) : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <font size="size"></font> tags.
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Parameters

Number size An integer between 1 and 7, or a string representing a signed integer between 1 and 7, specifiying what the font size should be set to.

Returns

String

Example: Using string methods to change the size of a string

The following example uses string methods to change the size of a string:

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        
                        document.write(worldString.small())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.big())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.fontsize(7))
                        
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P><SMALL>Hello, world</SMALL>
                        <P><BIG>Hello, world</BIG>
                        <P><FONT SIZE="7">Hello, world</FONT>
                        
Remarks

Use the fontsize method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.

When you specify size as an integer, you set the size of stringName to one of the 7 defined sizes. When you specify size as a string such as "-2", you adjust the font size of stringName relative to the size set in the BASEFONT tag.

See Also

big|small

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

static fromCharCode(String num1, ..., numN) : String
Returns a string created by using the specified sequence of Unicode values.
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Parameters

String num1, ..., numN (one-or-more)A sequence of numbers that are Unicode values.

Returns

String

Using fromCharCode

The following example returns the string "ABC".

String.fromCharCode(65,66,67)
Remarks

This method returns a string and not a String object.

Because fromCharCode is a static method of String, you always use it as String.fromCharCode(), rather than as a method of a String object you created.

See Also

String.charCodeAt

Availability

JavaScript 1.2|JScript 3.0|ECMAScript v1

indexOf(String searchValue, [String fromIndex]) : Number
Returns the index within the calling String object of the first occurrence of the specified value, starting the search at fromIndex, or -1 if the value is not found.
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Parameters

String searchValue A string representing the value to search for.
String fromIndex (optional)The location within the calling string to start the search from. It can be any integer between 0 and the length of the string. The default value is 0.

Returns

Number

Using indexOf and lastIndexOf

The following example uses indexOf and lastIndexOf to locate values in the string "Brave new world".

var anyString="Brave new world"
                        
                        // Displays 8
                        document.write("<P>The index of the first w from the beginning is " +
                        anyString.indexOf("w"))
                        
                        // Displays 10
                        document.write("<P>The index of the first w from the end is " +
                        anyString.lastIndexOf("w"))
                        
                        // Displays 6
                        document.write("<P>The index of 'new' from the beginning is " +
                        anyString.indexOf("new"))
                        
                        // Displays 6
                        document.write("<P>The index of 'new' from the end is " +
                        anyString.lastIndexOf("new"))

indexOf and case-sensitivity

The following example defines two string variables. The variables contain the same string except that the second string contains uppercase letters. The first writeln method displays 19. But because the indexOf method is case sensitive, the string "cheddar" is not found in myCapString, so the second writeln method displays -1.

myString="brie, pepper jack, cheddar"
                        myCapString="Brie, Pepper Jack, Cheddar"
                        
                        document.writeln('myString.indexOf("cheddar") is ' +
                        myString.indexOf("cheddar"))
                        
                        document.writeln('<P>myCapString.indexOf("cheddar") is ' +
                        myCapString.indexOf("cheddar"));

Using indexOf to count occurrences of a letter in a string

The following example sets count to the number of occurrences of the letter x in the string str:

count = 0;
                        pos = str.indexOf("x");
                        while ( pos != -1 ) {
                        count++;
                        pos = str.indexOf("x", pos+1);
                        }
Remarks

Characters in a string are indexed from left to right. The index of the first character is 0, and the index of the last character of a string called stringName is stringName.length - 1.

"Blue Whale".indexOf("Blue")    // returns 0
                        "Blue Whale".indexOf("Blute")   // returns -1
                        "Blue Whale".indexOf("Whale",0) // returns 5
                        "Blue Whale".indexOf("Whale",5) // returns 5
                        "Blue Whale".indexOf("",9)      // returns 9
                        "Blue Whale".indexOf("",10)     // returns 10
                        "Blue Whale".indexOf("",11)     // returns 10

The indexOf method is case sensitive. For example, the following expression returns -1:

"Blue Whale".indexOf("blue")
See Also

charAt|lastIndexOf|split

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0, ECMAScript v1

italics() : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <i></i> tags.
Show Details 3.0+ 1.0+ 2.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

Returns

String

Example: Using string methods to change the formatting of a string

The following example uses string methods to change the formatting of a string:

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        
                        document.write(worldString.blink())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.bold())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.italics())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.strike())
                        
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P><BLINK>Hello, world</BLINK>
                        <P><B>Hello, world</B>
                        <P><I>Hello, world</I>
                        <P><STRIKE>Hello, world</STRIKE>
Remarks

Use the italics method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.

See Also

bold|italics|strike

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

lastIndexOf(String searchValue, [String fromIndex]) : Number
Returns the index within the calling String object of the last occurrence of the specified value, or -1 if not found. The calling string is searched backward, starting at fromIndex.
Show Details 3.0+ 1.0+ 2.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

Parameters

String searchValue A string representing the value to search for.
String fromIndex (optional)The location within the calling string to start the search from. It can be any integer between 0 and the length of the string. The default value is the length of the string.

Returns

Number

Using indexOf and lastIndexOf

The following example uses indexOf and lastIndexOf to locate values in the string "Brave new world".

var anyString="Brave new world"
                        
                        // Displays 8
                        document.write("<P>The index of the first w from the beginning is " +
                        anyString.indexOf("w"))
                        // Displays 10
                        document.write("<P>The index of the first w from the end is " +
                        anyString.lastIndexOf("w"))
                        // Displays 6
                        document.write("<P>The index of 'new' from the beginning is " +
                        anyString.indexOf("new"))
                        // Displays 6
                        document.write("<P>The index of 'new' from the end is " +
                        anyString.lastIndexOf("new"))
Remarks

Characters in a string are indexed from left to right. The index of the first character is 0, and the index of the last character is stringName.length - 1.

"canal".lastIndexOf("a")   // returns 3
                        "canal".lastIndexOf("a",2) // returns 1
                        "canal".lastIndexOf("a",0) // returns -1
                        "canal".lastIndexOf("x")   // returns -1

The lastIndexOf method is case sensitive. For example, the following expression returns -1:

"Blue Whale, Killer Whale".lastIndexOf("blue") 
See Also

charAt|indexOf|split

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0, ECMAScript v1

link(String href) : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <a href="href"></a> tags.
Show Details 3.0+ 1.0+ 2.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

Parameters

String href String specifying the URL for the link.

Returns

String

Example: Using link

The following example displays the word "Netscape" as a hypertext link that returns the user to the Netscape home page:

var hotText="Netscape"
                        var URL="http://home.netscape.com"
                        
                        document.write("Click to return to " + hotText.link(URL))
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

Click to return to <A HREF="http://home.netscape.com">Netscape</A>
Remarks

Use the link method to programmatically create a hypertext link, and then call write or writeln to display the link in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the link.

Links created with the link method become elements in the links array of the document object. See document.links.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

localeCompare(String target) : Number
Uses locale-specific ordering to compare two strings.
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Parameters

String target A string to be compared locale-wise to the string object.

Returns

Number
Availability

JavaScript 1.5|JScript 5.5|ECMAScript v3

match(Object regexp) : Array
Used to match a regular expression against a string.
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Parameters

Object regexp Name of the regular expression. It can be a variable name or a literal.

Returns

Array

Using match

In the following example, match is used to find "Chapter" followed by 1 or more numeric characters followed by a decimal point and numeric character 0 or more times. The regular expression includes the i flag so that case will be ignored.

                        str = "For more information, see Chapter 3.4.5.1";
                        re = /(chapter \d+(\.\d)*)/i;
                        found = str.match(re);
                        document.write(found);
                        

This returns the array containing Chapter 3.4.5.1,Chapter 3.4.5.1,.1

"Chapter 3.4.5.1" is the first match and the first value remembered from (Chapter \d+(\.\d)*).

".1" is the second value remembered from (\.\d).

Using global and ignore case flags with match

The following example demonstrates the use of the global and ignore case flags with match.

                        str = "abcDdcba";
                        newArray = str.match(/d/gi);
                        document.write(newArray);
                        

The returned array contains D, d.

Remarks

If the regular expression does not include the g flag, returns the same result that RegExp.exec would return on the regular expression and string. If the regular expression includes the g flag, returns an array of all the matches of the regular expression in the string.

Note

If you execute a match simply to find true or false, use String.search or the regular expression test method.

See Also

RegExp|RegExp.exec|RegExp.test|String.replace|String.search

Availability

JavaScript 1.2|JScript 3.0|ECMAScript v3

replace(String regexp, String newSubStr, String function) : Array
Finds a match between a regular expression and a string, and replaces the matched substring with a new substring.
Show Details 3.0+ 1.0+ 4.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

Parameters

String regexp The name of the regular expression. It can be a variable name or a literal.
String newSubStr The string to put in place of the string found with regexp.
String function A function to be invoked after the match has been performed.

Returns

Array

Using global and ignore with replace

In the following example, the regular expression includes the global and ignore case flags which permits replace to replace each occurrence of 'apples' in the string with 'oranges'.

                        re = /apples/gi;
                        str = "Apples are round, and apples are juicy.";
                        newstr=str.replace(re, "oranges");
                        document.write(newstr)
                        

This prints "oranges are round, and oranges are juicy."

Defining the regular expression in replace

In the following example, the regular expression is defined in replace and includes the ignore case flag.

                        str = "Twas the night before Xmas...";
                        newstr=str.replace(/xmas/i, "Christmas");
                        document.write(newstr)
                        

This prints "Twas the night before Christmas..."

Switching words in a string

The following script switches the words in the string. For the replacement text, the script uses the $1 and $2 replacement patterns.

                        re = /(\w+)\s(\w+)/;
                        str = "John Smith";
                        newstr = str.replace(re, "$2, $1");
                        document.write(newstr)
                        

This prints "Smith, John".

Replacing a Fahrenheit degree with its Celcius equivalent

The following example replaces a Fahrenheit degree with its equivalent Celsius degree. The Fahrenheit degree should be a number ending with F. The function returns the Celsius number ending with C. For example, if the input number is 212F, the function returns 100C. If the number is 0F, the function returns -17.77777777777778C.

The regular expression test checks for any number that ends with F. The number of Fahrenheit degree is accessible to your function through the parameter $1. The function sets the Celsius number based on the Fahrenheit degree passed in a string to the f2c function. f2c then returns the Celsius number. This function approximates Perl's s///e flag.

function f2c(x) {
                        var s = String(x)
                        var test = /(\d+(?:\.\d*)?)F\b/g
                        return s.replace
                        (test,
                        function (str,p1,offset,s) {
                        return ((p1-32) * 5/9) + "C";
                        }
                        )
                        }
Remarks

This method does not change the String object it is called on. It simply returns a new string.

If you want to execute a global search and replace, include the g flag in the regular expression.

Specifying a string as a parameter

The replacement string can include the following special replacement patterns:

Pattern Inserts
$$ Inserts a "$".
$& Inserts the matched substring.
$` Inserts the portion of the string that precedes the matched substring.
$´ Inserts the portion of the string that follows the matched substring.
$n or $nn Where n or nn are decimal digits, inserts the nth parenthesized submatch string.

Specifying a function as a parameter

When you specify a function as the second parameter, the function is invoked after the match has been performed. (The use of a function in this manner is often called a lambda expression.)

In your function, you can dynamically generate the string that replaces the matched substring. The result of the function call is used as the replacement value.

The nested function can use the matched substrings to determine the new string (newSubStr) that replaces the found substring. You get the matched substrings through the parameters of your function. The first parameter of your function holds the complete matched substring. The following n parameters can be used for parenthetical matches, remembered submatch strings, where n is the number of submatch strings in the regular expression. Finally, the last two parameters are the offset within the string where the match occurred and the string itself. For example, the following replace method returns XX.zzzz - XX , zzzz.

"XXzzzz".replace(/(X*)(z*)/,
                        function (str, p1, p2, offset, s) {
                        return str + " - " + p1 + " , " + p2;
                        }
                        )
See Also

RegExp|RegExp.exec|RegExp.test|String.match|String.search

Availability

JavaScript 1.2|JScript 3.0|ECMAScript v3

search(String regexp) : Number
Executes the search for a match between a regular expression and this String object.
Show Details 4.0+ 1.0+ 4.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

Parameters

String regexp Name of the regular expression. It can be a variable name or a literal.

Returns

Number

Using search

The following example prints a message which depends on the success of the test.

function testinput(re, str){
                        if (str.search(re) != -1)
                        midstring = " contains ";
                        else
                        midstring = " does not contain ";
                        document.write (str + midstring + re.source);
                        }
Remarks

If successful, search returns the index of the regular expression inside the string. Otherwise, it returns -1.

When you want to know whether a pattern is found in a string use search (similar to the regular expression test method); for more information (but slower execution) use match (similar to the regular expression exec method).

See Also

RegExp|RegExp.exec|RegExp.test|String.match|String.replace

Availability

JavaScript 1.2|JScript 3.0|ECMAScript v3

slice(String beginSlice, String endSlice) : String
Extracts a section of a string and returns a new string.
Show Details 4.0+ 1.0+ 2.0+ 7.0+ 1.0+

Parameters

String beginSlice The zero-based index at which to begin extraction.
String endSlice The zero-based index at which to end extraction. If omitted, slice extracts to the end of the string.

Returns

String

Using slice to create a new string

The following example uses slice to create a new string.

                        str1="The morning is upon us. "
                        str2=str1.slice(3,-5)
                        document.write(str2)
                        

This writes:

morning is upon
Remarks

slice extracts the text from one string and returns a new string. Changes to the text in one string do not affect the other string.

slice extracts up to but not including endSlice. string.slice(1,4) extracts the second character through the fourth character (characters indexed 1, 2, and 3).

As a negative index, endSlice indicates an offset from the end of the string. string.slice(2,-1) extracts the third character through the second to last character in the string.

See Also

Array.slice|String.substring

Availability

JavaScript 1.2|JScript 3.0|ECMAScript v3

small() : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <small></small> tags.
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Returns

String

Example: Using string methods to change the size of a string

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        
                        document.write(worldString.small())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.big())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.fontsize(7))
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P><SMALL>Hello, world</SMALL>
                        <P><BIG>Hello, world</BIG>
                        <P><FONTSIZE=7>Hello, world</FONTSIZE>
Remarks
Use the small method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.
See Also

big|fontsize

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

split(String separator, [String limit]) : Array
Splits a String object into an array of strings by separating the string into substrings.
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Parameters

String separator Specifies the character to use for separating the string. The separator is treated as a string or a regular expression. If separator is omitted, the array returned contains one element consisting of the entire string.
String limit (optional)Integer specifying a limit on the number of splits to be found.

Returns

Array

Using split

The following example defines a function that splits a string into an array of strings using the specified separator. After splitting the string, the function displays messages indicating the original string (before the split), the separator used, the number of elements in the array, and the individual array elements.

function splitString (stringToSplit,separator) {
                        arrayOfStrings = stringToSplit.split(separator)
                        document.write ('<P>The original string is: "' + stringToSplit + '"')
                        document.write ('<BR>The separator is: "' + separator + '"')
                        document.write ("<BR>The array has " + arrayOfStrings.length + " elements: ")
                        
                        for (var i=0; i < arrayOfStrings.length; i++) {
                        document.write (arrayOfStrings[i] + " / ")
                        }
                        }
                        
                        var tempestString="Oh brave new world that has such people in it."
                        var monthString="Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr,May,Jun,Jul,Aug,Sep,Oct,Nov,Dec"
                        
                        var space=" "
                        var comma=","
                        
                        splitString(tempestString,space)
                        splitString(tempestString)
                        splitString(monthString,comma)

This example produces the following output:

The original string is: "Oh brave
                        new world that has such people in it."
                        The separator is: " "
                        The array has 10 elements: Oh / brave / new / world / that / has / such / people / in / it. /
                        
                        The original string is: "Oh brave new world that has such people in it."
                        The separator is: "undefined"
                        The array has 1 elements: Oh brave new world that has such people in it. /
                        
                        The original string is: "Jan,Feb,Mar,Apr,May,Jun,Jul,Aug,Sep,Oct,Nov,Dec"
                        The separator is: ","
                        The array has 12 elements: Jan / Feb / Mar / Apr / May / Jun / Jul / Aug / Sep / Oct / Nov / Dec /

The difference between split in JavaScript 1.2 and other versions

Consider the following script:

                        str="She sells seashells \nby the\n seashore"
                        document.write(str + "<BR>")
                        a=str.split(" ")
                        document.write(a)
                        

Using LANGUAGE="JavaScript1.2", this script produces:

"She", "sells", "seashells", "by", "the", "seashore"

Without LANGUAGE="JavaScript1.2", this script splits only on single space characters, producing:

"She", "sells", "seashells", "\nby", "the\n", "seashore"

Removing spaces from a string

In the following example, split looks for 1 or more spaces followed by a semicolon followed by 1 or more spaces and, when found, removes the spaces from the string. nameList is the array returned as a result of split.

                        names = "Harry Trump ;Fred Barney; Helen Rigby ; Bill Abel ;Chris Hand ";
                        document.write (names + "<BR>" + "<BR>");
                        re = /\s+;\s+/;
                        nameList = names.split (re);
                        document.write(nameList);
                        

This prints two lines; the first line prints the original string, and the second line prints the resulting array.

Harry Trump ;Fred Barney; Helen Rigby ; Bill Abel ;Chris Hand
                        Harry Trump,Fred Barney,Helen Rigby,Bill Abel,Chris Hand

Returning a limited number of splits

In the following example, split looks for 0 or more spaces in a string and returns the first 3 splits that it finds.

                        myVar = " Hello World. How are you doing? ";
                        splits = myVar.split(" ", 3);
                        document.write(splits)
                        

This script displays the following:

["Hello", "World.", "How"
Remarks

The split method returns the new array.

When found, separator is removed from the string and the substrings are returned in an array. If separator is omitted, the array contains one element consisting of the entire string.

In JavaScript 1.2 or later, split has the following additions:

  • It can take a regular expression argument, as well as a fixed string, by which to split the object string. If separator is a regular expression, any included parenthesis cause submatches to be included in the returned array.
  • It can take a limit count so that the resulting array does not include trailing elements.
  • If you specify LANGUAGE="JavaScript1.2" in the script tag, string.split(" ") splits on any run of 1 or more white space characters including spaces, tabs, line feeds, and carriage returns.
See Also

charAt|indexOf|lastIndexOf

Availability

JavaScript 1.1|JScript 3.0|ECMAScript v1|enhanced in ECMAScript v3

strike() : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by tags.
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Returns

String

Example: Using string methods to change the formatting of a string

The following example uses string methods to change the formatting of a string:

var worldString="Hello, world"
                        
                        document.write(worldString.blink())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.bold())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.italics())
                        document.write("<P>" + worldString.strike())
                        
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P><BLINK>Hello, world</BLINK>
                        <P><B>Hello, world</B>
                        <P><I>Hello, world</I>
                        <P><STRIKE>Hello, world</STRIKE>
Remarks

Use the strike method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to display the string.

See Also

blink|bold|italics

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

sub() : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <sub></sub> tags.
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Returns

String

Example: Using sub and sup methods to format a string

The following example uses the sub and sup methods to format a string:

var superText="superscript"
                        var subText="subscript"
                        
                        document.write("<P>This is what a " + superText.sup() + " looks like.")
                        document.write("<P>This is what a " + subText.sub() + " looks like.")
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P>This is what a <SUP>superscript</SUP> looks like.
                        <P>This is what a <SUB>subscript</SUB> looks like.
Remarks

Use the sub method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to generate the HTML.

See Also

sup

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

substr(Number start, Number length) : String
Returns the characters in a string beginning at the specified location through the specified number of characters.
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Parameters

Number start Location at which to begin extracting characters (an integer between 0 and one less than the length of the string).
Number length The number of characters to extract.

Returns

String

Using substr

Consider the following script:

str = "abcdefghij";
                        document.writeln("(1,2): ", str.substr(1,2));
                        document.writeln("(-2,2): ", str.substr(-2,2));
                        document.writeln("(1): ", str.substr(1));
                        document.writeln("(-20, 2): ", str.substr(1,20));
                        document.writeln("(20, 2): ", str.substr(20,2));

This script displays:

(1,2): bc
                        (-2,2): ij
                        (1): bcdefghij
                        (-20, 2): bcdefghij
                        (20, 2):
Remarks

start is a character index. The index of the first character is 0, and the index of the last character is 1 less than the length of the string. substr begins extracting characters at start and collects length number of characters.

If start is positive and is the length of the string or longer, substr returns no characters.

If start is negative, substr uses it as a character index from the end of the string. If start is negative and abs(start) is larger than the length of the string, substr uses 0 is the start index.

If length is 0 or negative, substr returns no characters. If length is omitted, start extracts characters to the end of the string.

See Also

substring|String.slice

Availability

JavaScript 1.2|JScript 3.0|deprecated

substring(Number indexA, [Number indexB]) : String
Returns a subset of a String object.
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Parameters

Number indexA An integer between 0 and one less than the length of the string.
Number indexB (optional)An integer between 0 and the length of the string.

Returns

String

Using substring

The following example uses substring to display characters from the string "Mozilla":

var anyString = "Mozilla";
                        
                        // Displays "Moz"
                        document.write(anyString.substring(0,3));
                        document.write(anyString.substring(3,0));
                        // Displays "lla"
                        document.write(anyString.substring(4,7));
                        document.write(anyString.substring(7,4));
                        // Displays "Mozill"
                        document.write(anyString.substring(0,6));
                        // Displays "Mozilla"
                        document.write(anyString.substring(0,7));
                        document.write(anyString.substring(0,10));

Replacing a substring within a string

The following example replaces a substring within a string. It will replace both individual characters and substrings. The function call at the end of the example changes the string "Brave New World" into "Brave New Web".

function replaceString(oldS, newS, fullS) {
                        // Replaces oldS with newS in the string fullS
                        for (var i = 0; i < fullS.length; i++) {
                        if (fullS.substring(i, i + oldS.length) == oldS) {
                        fullS = fullS.substring(0, i) + newS + fullS.substring(i + oldS.length, fullS.length);
                        }
                        }
                        return fullS;
                        }
                        
                        replaceString("World", "Web", "Brave New World");

JavaScript 1.2 "Out of Memory" error

In JavaScript 1.2, using LANGUAGE="JavaScript1.2", the following script produces a runtime error (out of memory).

                        var str = "Mozilla";
                        document.write(str.substring(0,3));
                        document.write(str.substring(3,0));
                        

Without LANGUAGE="JavaScript1.2", the above script prints the following:

Moz Moz

In the second write, the index numbers are swapped.

Remarks

substring extracts characters from indexA up to but not including indexB. In particular:

  • If indexA is less than 0, indexA is treated as if it were 0.
  • If indexB is greater than stringName.length, indexB is treated as if it were stringName.length.
  • If indexA equals indexB, substring returns an empty string.
  • If indexB is omitted, substring extracts characters to the end of the string.

In JavaScript 1.2

Using LANGUAGE="JavaScript1.2" in the script tag,

  • If indexA is greater than indexB, JavaScript produces a runtime error (out of memory).

Without LANGUAGE="JavaScript1.2" in the script tag,

  • If indexA is greater than indexB, JavaScript returns substring(indexB, indexA).
See Also

String.charAt|String.indexOf|String.lastIndexOf|String.slice|String.substr

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0, ECMAScript v1

sup() : String
Returns a copy of a string surrounded by <sup></sup> tags.
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Returns

String

Example: Using sub and sup methods to format a string

The following example uses the sub and sup methods to format a string:

var superText="superscript"
                        var subText="subscript"
                        
                        document.write("<P>This is what a " + superText.sup() + " looks like.")
                        document.write("<P>This is what a " + subText.sub() + " looks like.")
                        

This example produces the same output as the following HTML:

                        <P>This is what a <SUP>superscript</SUP> looks like.
                        <P>This is what a <SUB>subscript</SUB> looks like.
Remarks

Use the sup method with the write or writeln methods to format and display a string in a document. In server-side JavaScript, use the write function to generate the HTML.

See Also

sub

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0

toLocaleLowerCase() : String
Returns a copy of a string in lowercase letters in a locale-specific format.
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Returns

String
See Also

String.toLocaleUpperCase|String.toLowerCase|String.toUpperCase

Availability

JavaScript 1.5|JScript 5.5, ECMAScript v3

toLocaleUpperCase() : String
Returns a copy of a string in uppercase letters in a locale-specific format.
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Returns

String
See Also

String.toLocaleLowerCase|String.toLowerCase|String.toUpperCase

Availability

JavaScript 1.5|JScript 5.5, ECMAScript v3

toLowerCase() : String
Returns the string value converted to lowercase.
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Returns

String

Using toLowerCase

The following example displays the lowercase string "alphabet":

var upperText="ALPHABET"
                        document.write(upperText.toLowerCase())
Remarks

The toLowerCase method returns the value of the string converted to lowercase. toLowerCase does not affect the value of the string itself.

See Also

toUpperCase

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0, ECMAScript v1

toString() : String
Returns a string representing the specified object.
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Returns

String

Using toString

The following example displays the string value of a String object:

x = new String("Hello world");
                        alert(x.toString())      // Displays "Hello world"
Throws
TypeError is thrown if the specified object is not a String.
See Also

String.valueOf

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0, ECMAScript v1 Overrides Object.toString

toUpperCase() : String
Returns the string value converted to all uppercase.
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Returns

String

Example: Using toUpperCase

The following example displays the string "ALPHABET":

var lowerText="alphabet"
                        document.write(lowerText.toUpperCase())
Remarks

The toUpperCase method returns the value of the string converted to uppercase. toUpperCase does not affect the value of the string itself.

See Also

toLowerCase

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

valueOf() : Object
Returns the primitive value of a String object.
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Returns

Object

Example: Using valueOf

x = new String("Hello world");
                        alert(x.valueOf())          // Displays "Hello world"
Remarks

The valueOf method of String returns the primitive value of a String object as a string data type. This value is equivalent to String.toString.

This method is usually called internally by JavaScript and not explicitly in code.

See Also

toString|Object.valueOf

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

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