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Math : Object

A built-in object that has properties and methods for mathematical constants and functions. For example, the Math object's PI property has the value of pi.

Platform Support

IE Mozilla Netscape Opera Safari
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Properties

Property Action IE Mozilla Netscape Opera Safari
static E : Number
Euler's constant and the base of natural logarithms, approximately 2.718.
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Using Math.E

The following function returns Euler's constant:

function getEuler() {
                        return Math.E
                        }
Remarks

Because E is a static property of Math, you always use it as Math.E, rather than as a property of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static LN10 : Number
The natural logarithm of 10, approximately 2.302.
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Using Math.LN10

The following function returns the natural log of 10:

function getNatLog10() {
                        return Math.LN10
                        }
Remarks

Because LN10 is a static property of Math, you always use it as Math.LN10, rather than as a property of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static LN2 : Number
The natural logarithm of 2, approximately 0.693.
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Using Math.LN2

The following function returns the natural log of 2:

function getNatLog2() {
                        return Math.LN2
                        }
Remarks

Because LN2 is a static property of Math, you always use it as Math.LN2, rather than as a property of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static LOG10E : Number
The base 10 logarithm of E (approximately 0.434).
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Using Math.LOG10E

The following function returns the base 10 logarithm of E:

function getLog10e() {
                        return Math.LOG10E
                        } 
Remarks

Because LOG10E is a static property of Math, you always use it as Math.LOG10E, rather than as a property of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static LOG2E : Number
The base 2 logarithm of E (approximately 1.442).
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Using Math.LOG2E

The following function returns the base 2 logarithm of E:

function getLog2e() {
                        return Math.LOG2E
                        }
Remarks

Because LOG2E is a static property of Math, you always use it as Math.LOG2E, rather than as a property of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static PI : Number
The ratio of the circumference of a circle to its diameter, approximately 3.14159.
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Using PI

The following function returns the value of pi:

function getPi() {
                        return Math.PI
                        }
Remarks

Because PI is a static property of Math, you always use it as Math.PI, rather than as a property of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static SQRT1_2 : Number
The square root of 1/2; equivalently, 1 over the square root of 2, approximately 0.707.
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Using SQRT1_2

The following function returns 1 over the square root of 2:

function getRoot1_2() {
                        return Math.SQRT1_2
                        }
Remarks

Because SQRT1_2 is a static property of Math, you always use it as Math.SQRT1_2, rather than as a property of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static SQRT2 : Number
The square root of 2, approximately 1.414.
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Using Math.SQRT2

The following function returns the square root of 2:

function getRoot2() {
                        return Math.SQRT2
                        }
Remarks

Because SQRT2 is a static property of Math, you always use it as Math.SQRT2, rather than as a property of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

Functions

Method Action IE Mozilla Netscape Opera Safari
static abs(Number x) : Number
Returns the absolute value of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.abs

The following function returns the absolute value of the variable x:

function getAbs(x) {
                        return Math.abs(x)
                        }
Remarks

abs is a static method of Math, so you always use it as Math.abs(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static acos(Number x) : Number
Returns the arccosine (in radians) of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.acos

The following function returns the arccosine of the variable x:

function getAcos(x) {
                        return Math.acos(x)
                        }

If you pass -1 to getAcos, it returns 3.141592653589793; if you pass 2, it returns NaN because 2 is out of range.

Remarks

The acos method returns a numeric value between 0 and pi radians for x between -1 and 1. If the value of number is outside this range, it returns NaN.

acos is a static method of Math, so you always use it as Math.acos(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

asin|atan|atan2|cos|sin|tan

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static asin(Number x) : Number
Returns the arcsine (in radians) of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.asin

The following function returns the arcsine of the variable x:

function getAsin(x) {
                        return Math.asin(x)
                        }

If you pass getAsin the value 1, it returns 1.570796326794897 (pi/2); if you pass it the value 2, it returns NaN because 2 is out of range.

Remarks

The asin method returns a numeric value between -pi/2 and pi/2 radians. If the value of number is outside this range, it returns NaN.

asin is a static method of Math, so you always use it as Math.asin(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

acos|atan|atan2|cos|sin|tan

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static atan(Number x) : Number
Returns the arctangent (in radians) of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.atan

The following function returns the arctangent of the variable x:

function getAtan(x) {
                        return Math.atan(x)
                        }

If you pass getAtan the value 1, it returns 0.7853981633974483; if you pass it the value .5, it returns 0.4636476090008061.

Remarks

The atan method returns a numeric value between -pi/2 and pi/2 radians.

atan is a static method of Math, so you always use it as Math.atan(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

acos|asin|atan2|cos|sin|tan

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static atan2(Object y, Object x) : Number
Returns the arctangent of the quotient of its arguments.
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Parameters

Object y Number.
Object x Number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.atan2

The following function returns the angle of the polar coordinate:

function getAtan2(x,y) {
                        return Math.atan2(x,y)
                        }

If you pass getAtan2 the values (90,15), it returns 1.4056476493802699; if you pass it the values (15,90), it returns 0.16514867741462683.

Remarks

The atan2 method returns a numeric value between -pi and pi representing the angle theta of an (x,y) point. This is the counterclockwise angle, measured in radians, between the positive X axis, and the point (x,y). Note that the arguments to this function pass the y-coordinate first and the x-coordinate second.

atan2 is passed separate x and y arguments, and atan is passed the ratio of those two arguments.

Because atan2 is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.atan2(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

acos|asin|atan|cos|sin|tan

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static ceil(Number x) : Number
Returns the smallest integer greater than or equal to a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.ceil

The following function returns the ceil value of the variable x:

function getCeil(x) {
                        return Math.ceil(x)
                        }

If you pass 45.95 to getCeil, it returns 46; if you pass -45.95, it returns -45.

Remarks

Because ceil is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.ceil(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

floor

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static cos(Number x) : Number
Returns the cosine of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.cos

The following function returns the cosine of the variable x:

function getCos(x) {
                        return Math.cos(x)
                        }

If x equals 2*Math.PI, getCos returns 1; if x equals Math.PI, the getCos method returns -1.

Remarks

The cos method returns a numeric value between -1 and 1, which represents the cosine of the angle.

Because cos is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.cos(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

acos|asin|atan|atan2|sin|tan

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static exp(Number x) : Number
Returns Ex, where x is the argument, and E is Euler's constant, the base of the natural logarithms.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.exp

The following function returns the exponential value of the variable x:

function getExp(x) {
                        return Math.exp(x)
                        }

If you pass getExp the value 1, it returns 2.718281828459045.

Remarks

Because exp is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.exp(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

Math.E|log|pow

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static floor(Number x) : Number
Returns the largest integer less than or equal to a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.floor

The following function returns the floor value of the variable x:

function getFloor(x) {
                        return Math.floor(x)
                        }

If you pass 45.95 to getFloor, it returns 45; if you pass -45.95, it returns -46.

Remarks

Because floor is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.floor(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

ceil

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static log(Number x) : Number
Returns the natural logarithm (base E) of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.log

The following function returns the natural log of the variable x:

function getLog(x) {
                        return Math.log(x)
                        }

If you pass getLog the value 10, it returns 2.302585092994046; if you pass it the value 0, it returns -Infinity; if you pass it the value -1, it returns NaN because -1 is out of range.

Remarks

If the value of number is negative, the return value is always NaN.

Because log is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.log(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

exp|pow

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static max(Number x, Number y) : Number
Returns the larger of two numbers.
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Parameters

Number x Number.
Number y Number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.max

The following function evaluates the variables x and y:

function getMax(x,y) {
                        return Math.max(x,y)
                        }

If you pass getMax the values 10 and 20, it returns 20; if you pass it the values -10 and -20, it returns -10.

Remarks

Because max is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.max(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

min

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1|enhanced in ECMAScript v3

static min() : Number
Returns the smaller of two numbers.
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Returns

Number

Using Math.min

The following function evaluates the variables x and y:

function getMin(x,y) {
                        return Math.min(x,y)
                        }

If you pass getMin the values 10 and 20, it returns 10; if you pass it the values -10 and -20, it returns -20.

Remarks

Because min is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.min(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

max

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1|enhanced in ECMAScript v3

static pow() : Number
Returns base to the exponent power, that is, baseexponent.
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Returns

Number

Using Math.pow

function raisePower(x,y) {
                        return Math.pow(x,y)
                        }

If x is 7 and y is 2, raisePower returns 49 (7 to the power of 2).

Remarks

Because pow is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.pow(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

exp|log

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static random() : Number
Returns a pseudo-random number in the range [0,1) -- that is, between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive). The random number generator is seeded from the current time, as in Java.
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Returns

Number

Using Math.random

//Returns a random number between 0 (inclusive) and 1 (exclusive)
                        function getRandom() {
                        return Math.random()
                        }
Remarks

Because random is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.random(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.1|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static round(Number x) : Number
Returns the value of a number rounded to the nearest integer.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.round

//Returns the value 20
                        x=Math.round(20.49)
                        
                        //Returns the value 21
                        x=Math.round(20.5)
                        
                        //Returns the value -20
                        x=Math.round(-20.5)
                        
                        //Returns the value -21
                        x=Math.round(-20.51)
Remarks

If the fractional portion of number is .5 or greater, the argument is rounded to the next higher integer. If the fractional portion of number is less than .5, the argument is rounded to the next lower integer.

Because round is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.round(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static sin(Number x) : Number
Returns the sine of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.sin

The following function returns the sine of the variable x:

function getSine(x) {
                        return Math.sin(x)
                        }

If you pass getSine the value Math.PI/2, it returns 1.

Remarks

The sin method returns a numeric value between -1 and 1, which represents the sine of the argument.

Because sin is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.sin(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

acos|asin|atan|atan2|cos|tan

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static sqrt(Number x) : Number
Returns the square root of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.sqrt

The following function returns the square root of the variable x:

function getRoot(x) {
                        return Math.sqrt(x)
                        }

If you pass getRoot the value 9, it returns 3; if you pass it the value 2, it returns 1.414213562373095.

Remarks

If the value of number is negative, sqrt returns NaN.

Because sqrt is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.sqrt(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

static tan(Number x) : Number
Returns the tangent of a number.
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Parameters

Number x A number.

Returns

Number

Using Math.tan

The following function returns the tangent of the variable x:

function getTan(x) {
                        return Math.tan(x)
                        }
Remarks

The tan method returns a numeric value that represents the tangent of the angle.

Because tan is a static method of Math, you always use it as Math.tan(), rather than as a method of a Math object you created.

See Also

acos|asin|atan|atan2|cos|sin

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

Remarks

All properties and methods of Math are static. You refer to the constant pi as Math.PI and you call the sine function as Math.sin(x), where x is the method's argument. Constants are defined with the full precision of real numbers in JavaScript.

It is often convenient to use the with statement when a section of code uses several Math constants and methods, so you don't have to type "Math" repeatedly. For example,

with (Math) {
            a = PI * r*r
            y = r*sin(theta)
            x = r*cos(theta)
            }

References

Number

Availability

JavaScript 1.0|JScript 1.0|ECMAScript v1

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